Confederate War Diary
by Captain H A Chambers

    The Year 1862
    Captain H.A. Chambers
    (A Series in the Landmark, Statesville, N.C. 1923-24)
    Transcriber’s Note:  Any gaps in the below diary are probably not due to the author 
    but to my inability to decipher the faded paper.  Occasionally, a whole page of the 
    paper was illegible but mostly just faded in spots.
    Landmark, Sept. 20, 1923
    Captain Henry A. Chambers, a native of Iredell County, but now and for many years 
    a practicing lawyer in Chattanooga, Tennessee, kept a diary of his service in the 
    Confederate Army.  This paper is permitted to publish this diary and the first 
    installment begins in today’s paper.  The diary will appear in two volumes, one of 
    which is ready and Captain Chambers is already at work on the second volume.  
    This will be published in this paper in installments. 
    While Captain Chambers is known to just about everyone in Iredell, a brief review 
    of his war record will answer as an introduction to his diary.  The first volume of 
    the diary covers the time from and including January 1, 1862 to and including 
    May 25, 1863 with an epitome on Jan. 1, 1862 of occurrences from May 4, 1861 
    when, after leaving Davidson College, he volunteered in Statesville in the company 
    then being raised by Professor and later Captain John B. Andrews, which company 
    became Company C of the famous 4th Regiment.  Captain Chambers was a private 
    in that company, but from December, 1861 was on detached service as a member 
    of the Police Guard of the Provost Marshall of the Army of Northern Virginia until 
    December 3, 1862 when he was captain of Company C, 49th Regiment, N.C.T., 
    in Ransom’s Brigade.
    A second book or volume of the diary begins with June 1, 1863 with an epitome 
    of the last six days of May, to the end of April, 1865 when Captain Chambers 
    returned from Appomattox.  
    The Provost Marshall’s Guard was composed of men detailed from several 
    regiments then camped in the vicinity of Manassas Junction.   The 4th 
    Regiment was one form which men were detailed for that service and made 
    up of 
    Company A (pre-war Iredell Blues) from Iredell County, Absolom H. Simonton, Captain
    Company B, Rowan County, James H. Wood, Captain
    Company C, Iredell County, John B. Andrews, Captain
    Company D, Wayne County, J.B. Whitaker, Captain
    Company E, Beaufort, David M. Carter, Captain
    Company F, Wilson County, Jesse S. Barnes, Captain
    Company G, Davie County, William G. Kelly, Captain
    Company H, Iredell County, Edwin A. Osborne, Captain
    Company I, Beaufort County, W.T. Marsh, Captain
    Company K (pre-war Rowan Rifle Guards), Rowan County, F.Y. McNeely, 
    This paper and those who know Captain Chambers will know that they will find 
    a careful reading of his diary worthwhile
    Our Regiment (4th), was formed by Col. George B. Anderson at Camp Hill, 
    near Carysburg, Northampton Co., N.C.  The regiment was made up of three 
    companies from Iredell County, two from Rowan County, one from Davie 
    County, one from Wilson County and two from Wayne County.  Our field and 
    staff officers were as first appointed:
    Col. George B. Anderson
    Lt. Col. John A. Young
    Major Bryan Grimes
    Adjutant John D. Hyman
    Commissary Robert F. Simonton
    Quartermaster Thomas M. Blount
    Sgt. Major Francis D. Carlton
    Commissary Sgt. D.D. Dougherty
    Quartermaster Sgt. J.F. Kenter
    Surgeon T.F. King
    Since then, some changes have been made.  J.D. Hyman has become 
    Commissary and T.L. Perry Adjutant
    [NOTE:  Col. Anderson was promoted]
    Transcriber’s Note:  I insert here a letter Captain Chambers sent to the Landmark 
    and which was printed in their Jan. 7, 1924 issue. In this letter, he clarifies 
    some of the persons mentioned in the below diary.  Unfortunately, this letter 
    is illegible in parts but what parts were readable are presented below.  The 
    illegible part mostly detailed how he came to be part of the provost guard and 
    mentioned Major Boyle’s first name, which I could best interpret as Cornelius.  
    His legible remarks:
    The detail from the 4th N.C. Regiment was in charge of Sgt., later Lt., William B. 
    Jones of Company C, from Davie County.  In 1863 and later he was in business 
    at New Institute in the northern part of Iredell County.
    The other members of the detail or “squad” were as I recollect, “Jeme” L. Wallace 
    of the southern part of Iredell County and August Lampe, a bright young German 
    from Statesville both of whom were members of Company A, “Iredell Blues” of 
    Iredell County; Joseph B. Keistler of Company B, Rowan County; Robert B. 
    Leinster and myself of Company C (Saltillo Boys) from Iredell; Samuel J. Litchford 
    of Company E from Beaufort County; ------ Durelle of Company F from Wilson 
    County; J.H. Hanes of Company G from Davie County; Charles R. Jones and 
    Jacob L. Fraley of Company K (Rowan Rifles) from Rowan County.  He had 
    volunteered in the Rowan Rifle Guards.  Jones was an Iredell County boy, the 
    son of General Charles R. Jones, long a prominent resident.
    Whether any men were detailed for this guard from Company D, from Wayne County; 
    H from Iredell County or I from  Beaufort I cannot now recollect with certainty.  I think
     that like the others, if such had been the facts, their names would have been 
    mentioned in the diary.
    Lampe, a fine and intelligent young German and a splendid soldier, and Jacob L. 
    Fraley, my “chum” and warm friend from Rowan County, after returning to the 4th 
    N.C. Regiment, were killed in battle while acting with conspicuous bravery.  
    Wallace, Leinster, Charley R. Jones and I survived the war.  Another Lt. Jones 
    (W.B.), Keistler, Litchfield, Durelle and Hanes also survived the wary.  I am not 
    certain but think they did; but whether either of them are still living I do not know.  
    After I left the detached service in December of 1862, I lost touch and communication 
    with all the other members of the squad.  Charles R. Jones moved to Tennessee 
    soon after the close of the war and I was not able to catch up on any post war 
    history of all the survivors of the detached service.  So far as I know I am the only 
    one of the 4th Regiment squad still living and only one wounded in the war.  I was 
    wounded in the Battle of Five Forks in Virginia on April 1, 1865, five days before 
    the surrender at Appomattox. 
    After Fraley went back to the regiment, he and I kept up a correspondence until 
    he was killed.  Charles R. Jones was transferred to and became an officer in the
     55th (?) Regiment.  He and I had been schoolmates before the war at New 
    Institute and Olin and after the war kept in touch with him as long as he lived.  
    I understand he became a successful newspaper man and publisher in Statesville 
    and Charlotte after the close of the war.  He was always genial, hearty, active, 
    friendly, intelligent, liberal minded and true to his friends.
    H.A. Chambers
    Chattanooga, Tennessee
    December 21, 1923
    Wednesday, January 1, 1862
    I have commenced a journal; how long I will keep it up I do not know.  I have no 
    doubt it will often be irksome but I hope I have firmness enough to persevere and 
    render it profitable.
    This is the first day of the year and is extremely beautiful and pleasant—calm, 
    genial, clear.  No one seems ever to have such a pleasant New Year’s Day.  
    May this be an index as the character of the year.
    In commencing this diary, it is proper to case a glance at the past.  This time last year, 
    I was situated a bit differently from what I am now.  Then, I was at Davidson’s College, 
    the Freshman Class, just fairly embarked in my classic studies.  Then my greatest 
    ambition was to excel in intellectual endowments.  But the tocsin of war, Civil War, 
    sounded through out land.  A sectional party had gotten the reins of power in its hands.  
    Thus the most stupendous war of America was brought about.  Party spirit, sectional 
    animosity and favoritism had ruined the old government.  May the year now commenced 
    witness the successful establishment of a purer and better government.  The year 1861 
    has been a long one, so far as I am individually concerned.  I have great reason to be 
    devoutly thankful to the Great Disposer of Events for the blessings showered upon me 
    with a lavish hand.  Yet, though He has been so merciful, I am a very great sinner, living 
    in rebellion against Him, daily transgressing His holy law.  May I, if spared through the 
    coming year, spend my time in serving Him.  I have been a volunteer for about eight 
    months, having volunteered 4th May, 1861 and having been sworn in as one of the 
    N.C. State Troops to serve during the war, on 7th June, 1861.
    [Notes:  Col. Anderson was promoted to Brigadier General, wounded in the 
    foot at Sharpsburg, in Maryland, and died in Raleigh, N.C., in consequence of 
    mortification of his wound; Lt. Col. Young “resigned, 3rd May, 1862”; Major 
    Grimes “became Lt. Col. When Young resigned and colonel when Anderson was 
    promoted.”  Quartermaster Blount was “killed below Richmond while leading his 
    regiment into battle”.  Adjutant Perry was “killed at Seven Pines in May of 1862.”]
    We, or rather five companies of the regiment, left Camp Hill for Virginia on 
    Saturday, July 20 and arrived in Richmond the next day, the ever memorable 
    and glorious 21st July.  We left Richmond for Manassas on the 25th and arrived 
    at the latter place on the morning of the 27th.  Ever since that time, we have been 
    encamped in the vicinity of Manassas.  
    I should have mentioned that the company to which I belong, is Company C, 
    commanded by Captain Jno. B. Andrews.  The officers of the company as 
    first elected in Statesville were as follows:
    Captain Jno. B. Andrews
    1st Lt. Jas. Rufus Reid
    2nd Lts. Edwin A. Osborne and Jos. C. White
    Lt. Osborne was elected captain of Company H of this regiment and William A. 
    Kerr was elected to fill the vacancy thus created.  Lt. Reid died last fall of 
    typhoid fever, the other lieutenants were promoted and Claudius S. Alexander 
    was appointed second lt.
    Thus I have, as briefly as possible, summed up the principal transactions of the 
    past year, which have in any way concerned me.  I will here remark, in order to 
    make what may hereafter be stated plain, that I am now a member of the Police 
    Guard, acting under orders from the Provost Marshall of the Army of the Potomac.  
    I was detailed for that service on the 13th day of last month.  The duties and 
    operations of the police I  will probably allude to in the following pages.  So 
    farewell, New Year’s Day.
    [Note:  The name “Manassas Junction” was often, while we were there, shortened
     to “Manassas”, hence my use of that form of the name.  The Federals assumed 
    from their name the “Army of the Potomac” and ours became the “Army of Northern 
    Virginia”.  Lt. Osborne became Major of the 4th N.C.S.T.; William A. Kerr became 
    captain and resigned; Claudius S. Alexander became captain and was killed in 
    May of 1863 at Chancellorsville; Captain Andrews was wounded in the hand and 
    shoulder below Richmond in June of 1862 and died in Richmond at Mr. Jones’ in 
    consequence of typhoid fever and erysipelas in wounds.]
    Thursday, Jan. 2, 1862
    This morning I was up bright and early.  Today our relief was on duty on the cars 
    and Sgt. Jones sent me to Gordonsville. (Transcriber’s note:  Cars is an old term 
    referring to a railroad car.)  Nothing of interest today.  We found no one violating 
    military laws.  The weather has undergone some change.  It has become colder 
    though still clear and calm
    Friday, Jan. 3, 1862
    Today is my rest day.  That is, I am not required to do police duty.  Our regiment 
    moved into its winter cabins and consequently I have not rested at all.  The cabins 
    are much more comfortable than the tents.  A thick wall is much more protection 
    from the weather than cloth, wood can be had in greater abundance near our 
    quarters but water, though nearby, is not nearly so plentiful.
    Saturday, Jan. 4, 1862
    Today is cold and blustery.  Last night there was a slight snow accompanied by 
    just enough rain to make the ground slick.  The rain froze as it fell.  Today I was 
    on police duty at the junction.  Nothing serious took place.  I wrote a letter to 
    Aunt Ruth A. Chambers today.
    Sunday, Jan. 5, 1862
    Still bitter cold.  We were on the cars today.  The sergeant stopped me at 
    Culpepper Court House.  How different the observance of the Sabbath there is 
    from what it is in camp.  I heard no fife or drum or band. There were no reviews 
    or inspections.  All was still and quiet in the streets.  Some loafing soldiers at 
    the grog shops were the only boisterous persons I saw.  These men pretend to 
    be sick in order to get to loaf about the town and to shirk the hard duties of camp.  
    The superintendent of the large hospital at Culpepper told me that of the 500 men 
    in the ward, 300 ought to be at their regiments doing active duty.  The solemn 
    peals of the church bells were strange sounds to  my ears.  They reminded me 
    of happier days in the good old “North State”.  May those happy days soon return.
    Monday, Jan. 6, 1862
    My rest day again. Colder than ever.  I remained in my cabin nearly all day 
    and busied myself writing letters.  I sent the editor of the Carolina Watchman 
    $2.00 for my subscription to the paper from 23rd November last.  I wrote a letter 
    to my lady friend Miss Mollie E. S-------, which I should have done some time ago.  
    I sat up quite late last night writing in this diary.  I only procured this book today 
    by the neat sum of $2 for it.  This will in some measure account for the meager 
    transactions of the previous days of the year.
    Tuesday, Jan. 7, 1862
    This day was extremely cold and we were on police duty at the Junction.  We 
    received a copy of the new instructions for the police.  In the evening, Sgt. 
    Jones sent me to the Provost Marshall’s office to write off a copy of the new 
    instructions for each member of our relief.  While there, quite an amusing 
    incident occurred.  A drunken member of some Louisiana regiment came 
    rushing into the office inquiring for “Major Byle” (Boyle).  Unfortunately for him, 
    Major “Byle” was present and instead of giving ear to the complaint of the 
    Louisiana soldier, he ordered him to go to the guard house for being a little tipsy.  
    I, being one of the police, was ordered to take him to the designated place.  
    The man was quite unwilling to go but I was a little superior in body strength 
    and not quite so strong in sprits—so, amidst a volley of oaths and anxious 
    wishes to see “a couple of the byes”, I succeeded in delivering him up to the 
    safety of the office of the Guard.  On the way, he frequently remarked: “I was 
    a damned fool for going to see the major”.  Nothing more worth recording today.
    Wednesday, Jan. 8, 1862
    We went off on the railroad.  The sergeant stopped me at Orange Court House 
    where, while the cars were gone, I spent $3.55 for him in the way of butter and 
    Thursday, Jan. 9, 1862
    I have been in camp all day.  I occupied a good portion of my time in writing a 
    letter to my fair friend in Taylorsville, Miss Mollie C. M------.  The papers of the 
    day I spent reading and in reading that book of wit “Simon Suggs”.  Tonight I 
    received from Mr. Lyerly a letter, and an interesting one, from my beloved cousin 
    Justina Chambers.  It told me that Mr. Lyerly was to bring me a box with some 
    clothes and other articles.
    [Note:  This Mr. Lyerly is Isaac Lyerly, a member of Company C, 49th N.C.R., of 
    which I now—in May, 1863, have the honor to be captain.]
    On this day we were on duty in the  muddiest of the muddy places, Manassas 
    Junction.  It was cloudy all day –that and a thick fog rendered it almost impossible 
    to distinguish objects more than twenty paces distant.  This morning, we police 
    confiscated some goods in the shape of two boxes filled with “fire water”.  These 
    boxes were being smuggled into camp by two of the “fair daughters of Ireland”.
    Saturday, Jan. 11, 1862
    This morning was clear and beautiful.  The ground is still very muddy. We went 
    off on the train today.  I was left at Bristoe Station, four miles from Manassas.  
    It was a tiresome duty for me.  Long before the train returned I began to look 
    anxiously up the road for it.  When we returned to camp, I rejoiced to find a box 
    from home under the care of Mr. Lyerly who had brought me the letter the night 
    before.  Everything came perfectly safe.  Thanks to my friends at home.
    September 27, 1923 issue of the Landmark:
    Friday, Jan. 31, 1862
    Mud1 Mud! Mud!  Manassas will soon sink to the center of the earth.  Today 
    was the day for our squad or relief to do duty at and about Manassas.  I never 
    was so tired tramping through mud.  I have become perfectly indifferent whether 
    I go around a mud hole for if I tried to do this I would have to avoid the station 
    altogether.  The day has been cloudy but no rainfall.  The Manassas Gap train 
    failed to connect with the Orange & Alexandria train for Lynchburg and did not 
    arrive here until about 11:00 owing to its having run off the track.  I wrote to Aunt 
    Ruth A. Chambers.
    Saturday, Feb. 1, 1862
    I spent this day on the cars and at Culpepper Court House.  Snow fell last night 
    to the depth of an inch.  This rendered it quite unpleasant out of doors in the town.  
    We brought from Culpepper four members of the “Jeff Davis Guards”, charged with 
    leaving camp without permission.  They were remanded to the general guard house 
    at Manassas until further notice.  
    Sunday, Feb. 2, 1862
    This lovely Sabbath day I passed in my cabin.  It does seem that the Dispenser 
    of Events is pleased to remind us of our Sabbath duties by causing the Sundays 
    to be so unlike the others of the week.  This day is clear, warm, and still, even the
     locomotives at Manassas seemed to respect this holy day by crossing their 
    almost interminable “tooting”.  I passed this day more like a Sunday at home 
    than any Sabbath since I came into the “tented field”.  The only difficulty is that 
    I heard no sermon.  A sermon from that excellent minister Reverend John L. 
    Kirkpatrick, D.D., president of Davidson College, would have made this a real 
    Sabbath day.
    Wednesday, Feb. 3, 1862
    This morning before day, it commenced to snow and continued to do so all day.  
    The snow lies four inches deep on the ground.  This was our day on duty at the 
    Junction but we did little except examine the trains as they went off.  Tonight I 
    wrote a letter to Miss Mollie E. S-----.  Nothing else of interest today.
    Tuesday, Feb. 4, 1862
    Off on the cars we went to Gordonsville. Sgt. Jones having been to Winchester last 
    Sunday evening and not having returned, Sgt. Wood of the 49th Virginia took our 
    relief in charge.  General Longstreet came down on the train this evening.  Sgt. 
    Jones returned today.
    Wednesday, Feb. 5, 1862
    Nothing much of interest today.  We arrested four Georgians for firing their muskets 
    at improper times.
    Friday, Feb. 7, 1862
    This morning the cars were crowded so that there was no room on any platform 
    to place a foot.  We put off parts of two companies of volunteers who have
     re-enlisted for the war.  They all had proper furlough but had neglected to procure 
    a pass.  James L. Wallace and myself stopped at Briscoe today.  We took a jaunt 
    into the country which was as pleasant as the mud would permit.  The engine of the 
    mail train did not arrive at Bristoe until nearly 11:00 pm.  Wallace and I had started 
    home but had not gotten far when the cars overtook us and we were saved our long 
    Saturday, Feb. 8, 1862
    Today I visited our regiment (4th) and knocked around generally.  Looking over 
    the transactions of the day, I find nothing worthy of special record.
    Sunday, Feb. 9, 1862
    Day on duty at Manassas.  We had hard work to get the train off, so dense was 
    the crowd.  Hundreds of soldiers were going home on furlough having re-enlisted.
    Monday, Feb. 10, 1862
    Went to Culpepper Court House today.  I had to call in the assistance of the guard 
    at Manassas before we could clear the platform of the cars so the brakemen could 
    Tuesday, Feb. 11, 1862
    Our rest day and my day to cook so I was in the culinary department all day. 
    Bad news in the papers concerning reverses in Tennessee and eastern North 
    Carolina.  It commenced snowing about 10:00 and continued until nearly sundown.  
    The snow reached about one inch in depth.  
    Wednesday, Feb. 12, 1862
    On duty at Manassas; did nothing very much.  Walked through the mud.  
    Quite a beautiful day.
    Thursday, Feb. 13, 1862
    Our day on duty on the cars.  I was summoned to attend a court marshal at 
    9:00 this morning so could not go on the train.  I was summoned to appear as 
    a witness in the case of the Confederate States versus five Georgians we took 
    up for shooting their muskets at inappropriate times.  Some members of the 
    court were absent so we were for the present discharged.  In rambling about 
    Bristow Station I came across the grave of my cousin Joseph M. Chambers 
    who died last summer.  He was a member of Company C, 11th Mississippi 
    Volunteers.  It made me feel quite sad for Joe was a school mate of mine.  A 
    squad of cavalry poured out about five gallons of liquor at Bristow today.  The 
    crowd had orders from some general to do so.  
    Friday, Feb. 14, 1862
    St. Valentine’s Day but I wrote no valentines.  Our rest day but had to attend 
    as a witness in the court Marshall in the 19th Virginia.  Wrote letters to cousin 
    M.R. Kimball and friend Sadler.
    Saturday, Feb. 15, 1862
    Last night it commenced snowing and continued all day.  Lampe and I were 
    walking around nearly all day.  We drew our rations today—enough of blue beef 
    at any rate.  We had a lively day of carrying out or rather hauling our provisions 
    to our quarters on our bone wagons.
    Sunday, Feb. 16, 1862
    Lampe and I were stopped at Bristow Station.  It was a beautiful day overhead.  
    The bright sun shining on the white snow dazzled the eye.  We visited the Misses 
    Graham and spent a very pleasant day in their company—was there on a visit 
    and added much to the pleasure of the day.
    Monday, Feb. 17, 1862
    Our rest day—employed it in writing letters.  I wrote two—one to Miss Mollie C. 
    M----- and the other to Miss M.E. Somers.  A slow rain has been falling all day, 
    which froze as fast as it fell.
    Tuesday, Feb. 18, 1862
    This day one year ago, according to the “Confederate States of America”, 
    Jefferson Davis was inaugurated as president of the Confederate States.  This 
    was under the provisional government established for one year and which will 
    terminate on the 21st.  On the 22nd inst., Washington’s birthday—Mr. Davis 
    will be inaugurated as the first president under the permanent constitution.  
    This was our day on duty at Manassas.  I acted as cook.
    Wednesday, Feb. 19, 1862
    It was cloudy and rainy all day.  Hanes and I were sent to Gordonsville today.  
    Sgt. Jones stopped at Orange Court House.  The news from the West is truly 
    disheartening.  Fort Donelson has fallen and with it the papers say, 15,000 of 
    our men including Generals Pillow, Buckner and Johnston, who were taken 
    prisoner.  Later telegraph reports deny this.  At any rate, a serious disaster 
    has befallen our arms.
    [Note:  Generals Buckner and Tilghman were taken, not the others.  A large 
    number of our men were captured but not half so many as heretofore stated.]
    Thursday, Feb. 20, 1862
    Clear, cold and in the evening, windy.  I employed myself in writing letters to 
    Cousin P.B. Chambers and in reading “Biographies and Historical Sketches” 
    by T.B. McAuley.  This was a rest day. 
    Friday, Feb. 21, 1862
    On duty at Manassas—confiscated 14 barrels of apple and peach brandy—in 
    all, over 600 gallons.  Nothing else of importance today.
    Saturday, Feb. 22, 1862
    This is the anniversary of the birthday of that great and good man—the 
    champion of Liberty—George Washington.  130 years ago today in 
    Westmoreland County, Virginia, the noble warrior and patriot was born.  
    Since then, a new government has risen and failed.  Today witnesses the 
    inauguration of a president and vice president under a new government.  May 
    this government of Jefferson Davis with Alexander Stephens as vice president, 
    The Landmark, October 4, 1923
    Feb. 22, 1862
    It has been cloudy all day and tonight it rains.  Hanes and I were stopped at 
    Bristoe.  I spent the day quite pleasantly with the Misses Graham and their 
    friend Miss Virginia Macon Gaines.  General Joseph E. Johnston, commander 
    of the army, was on the cars this evening and I saw him for the first time.
    Sunday, Feb. 23, 1862
    A day of rest for me.  I remained in my cabin all day reading.  I have the blues 
    pretty badly, half in love, I suspect.  A certain fair image is constantly floating 
    before my disordered imagination.  I can read nothing or think or nothing more 
    than this fair image.
    [Note:  See Feb. 16. Love! Bah!]
    Sunday, Feb. 24, 1862
    Our squad was on duty at Manassas.  I was cook today.  The wind blew 
    terribly all day and night.
    Tuesday, Feb. 25, 1862
    Off on the cars.  Took up two men at Brandy Station.  They belonged to 
    Company B, 1st Regiment Virginia Volunteers and were trying to get to 
    Richmond without passes.  Hanes and I stopped with them at Culpepper 
    Court House.  Major Boyle put them in the general guard house.  This has 
    been a clear and beautiful day.
    Wednesday, Feb. 26, 1862
    Lampe and I took a wandering ramble in the country. We had an idea of enjoying 
    ourselves in the company of some fair acquaintances but I was somewhat 
    disappointed.  We saw only a part of the desirable objects.  Clear in the morning 
    and raining at night.
    Thursday, Feb. 27, 1862
    On duty at Manassas.  Took up three Irishmen who were jogging along towards 
    Bristoe Station with a jug and a canteen.  Major Boyle permitted them to go their 
    way this time but admonished them to sin no more.  Francis Marion died 67 years 
    ago today.
    Friday, Feb. 28, 1862
    A clear, windy and bitterly cold day.  We went up to the railroad.  I was destined 
    for Gordonsville but our train made such poor speed that we met the down train at 
    Orange Court House.  Another month gone and winter is ended.
    Saturday, March 1, 1862
    Our rest day.  I was left early alone in the cabin.  I remained until noon when I, too, 
    went to our regiment where I remained until nearly night.
    Saturday, March 2, 1862
    It commenced snowing early this morning and continued until about the middle of 
    the evening.  The ground is covered with about two inches.  General Sam Houston 
    is 69 years old today.
    Monday, March 3, 1862
    Fraley and I were stopped at Bristoe today—the first time he and I have been 
    together since we have been on police duty.  I spent the day quite pleasantly with 
    the Misses Gaines and Graham who were at Bristoe.  Nothing of importance today.
    [Note:  Bristoe has become quite charming.]
    Tuesday, March 4, 1862
    Our rest day.  One year ago today Abe Lincoln was inaugurated in Washington 
    City and all was in a “hub bub” and the whole country excited.  Everyone wanted 
    to know what policy would be foreshadowed in the inaugural.  We now know that 
    policy.  I wrote two letters today—one to Miss Mollie E. S----- and the other to 
    Miss Mary C. M-----.
    Wednesday, March 5, 8162
    On duty at Manassas.  Quite unwell today.  I went down to the regiment and 
    got my pay for November and December--$22.  Nothing else of importance.
    Thursday, March 6, 1862
    Our squad went up the railroad.  Hanes and I went to Gordonsville.  I carried a 
    letter to Mrs. Colonel G.B. Anderson.
    Friday, March 7, 1862
    Our rest day.  Nothing of importance today.  About 7:00 at night we received orders 
    to pack up and leave with Major Boyle in the morning.  All was bustle and confusion 
    and excitement.
    Saturday, March 8, 1862
    Such excitement in getting our baggage!  We did not go to bed until after midnight 
    and got up this morning at 4:00.  Got our breakfast, hurried up and put on our baggage.  
    The army is going to move back.  Major Boyle with 12 prisoners, and got in the back 
    coach and not IN but AFTER due time, we arrived at Culpepper Court House.  For the
     present, we are quartered in a new building which was put up for a regiment.  We 
    returned to Manassas on the down train which arrived there at 11:00 pm.  We are 
    now in our decorated and empty quarters.
    Sunday, March 9, 1862
    I slept none last  night.  After arriving in our empty quarters we got some supper 
    and all but myself lay down to sleep on the naked benches or the floor and all 
    others went to sleep.  I was afraid if I went to sleep we would be left in the morning.  
    Though so drowsy I could only with great difficulty keep my eyes open, I went up to
     the station to see the sights.  And what sights I did see! Huge piles of baggage 
    were piled up all along the railroad.  Engines were running to and fro making the air 
    echo and re-echo with their deafening and unearthly hootings and tootings—long 
    trains loading and unloading—men all full of intense anxiety were running about, 
    asking a thousand different questions and bemoaning their lot.  All was confusion.  
    After remaining there about an hour, I went back to our quarters and roused the 
    slumberers and we got some breakfast and boxed up our remaining effects.  We 
    then carried them up to the depot and soon after got them safely deposited in the 
    baggage car.
    Then came the tug of war.  Men, women and children with all the various baggage 
    accompanying moving families, crowded to the cars.  Soon the only coach reserved 
    for passengers was crowded and still they came.  Happily for me, I had been put in 
    charge of our baggage and had comparatively little trouble.  I noticed my friend 
    Wallace who had charge of the ladies’ carriage, long after the car was full, was 
    besieged with numerous anxious and pathetic appeals: “Just to let one more on”.  
    Here would come an old, grey haired man with his wife and a bevy of young ladies—
    his grandchildren, no doubt—and tell his story—true and pitiful indeed—and close 
    by the emphatic and beseeching declaration that he MUST go.  This was only an 
    example.  Wallace had to listen to many a heart rending story without the least 
    power to aid the sufferers—officers and men were running about, giving and 
    executing orders; other men were at work cutting up lumber to make kindling to 
    burn Manassas and the surplus baggage—but I cannot describe the scene—it 
    must be imagined.
    Presently it was announced that the boxes in the general depot containing 
    thousands of dollars worth of goods, would be burst open and their contents 
    given to whoever would take them.  All anxiety to get on the cars seemed to 
    ease while the intensified excitement of the turbulent crowd was under the 
    control of the Demon Rapacity.  Valuable boxes of clothing, tobacco, cigars, 
    bales of blankets, barrels of chestnuts, apples and ground peas all were scattered 
    through the excited multitude.  Men crowded around the place, selecting what they 
    wanted and destroying what they did not want or carry along.
    At last the train started.  I was amazed at the amount of valuable baggage that 
    was placed up along the road as we came out all of which would be burned.  
    This is but a very inadequate description of the evacuation of Manassas.  As we 
    came up the road the citizens with their families had crowded to the station in the 
    vain hope of getting on the cars. Everybody seemed to think our army was 
    scattered to the winds and that blood thirsty and plundering Yankees would 
    range the whole country in a few hours.  At Bristoe Station, I looked in vain for 
    one who I would have been pleased to see escape the enemy but she was 
    nowhere to be seen.  Was it possible that she would quietly remain at home 
    and welcome the Yankees?  Heaven forbid!  I hope some circumstance beyond 
    her control prevented her from falling back with other true Southerners. We arrived 
    at Culpepper Court House several hours behind time.
    Monday, March 10, 1862
    I forgot to mention that in my account of yesterday that we left our regiment 
    (4th N.C.S.T.) at Manassas.  It, with the 49th Virginia Volunteers, the 27th and 
    28th Georgia Regiments, are under the command of our excellent colonel, G.B. 
    Anderson.  Today we remained at Culpepper Court House.  I bought from a 
    member of the Hampton Legion a Colt’s repeater for which I paid $20.  The citizens 
    of this town are considerably excited on account of the movement of the army.  This 
    has been a beautiful day.  No better weather for marching could be wished.
    The Landmark, October 3, 1923
    March 11, 1862
    We had enough to do today.  We had to shoulder muskets and patrol the streets 
    to quiet all disturbance and prevent the sale of liquor.  We were on duty late at night.
    March 12, 1862
    Still on duty in the town of Culpepper and busy enough, too.  Troops began to move 
    through town this morning.  General G.W. Smith’s division, consisting of the brigade 
    of R. Toombs, D.R. Jones and Wilcox, arrived today and camped north of town.  
    General Smith made his quarters at a private residence in the town.  I never saw 
    an army on the march before.  All is bustle and excitement.  The town is full of 
    soldiers.  Major Boyle kept us on duty pretty late.  We carried our muskets all day.  
    I saw General Smith but we did not have the pleasure of seeing Generals Wilcox or 
    Toombs and the latter of whom I would rather see than any of the others.
    March 13, 1862
    It is cloudy this morning and it soon began to rain slightly.  This continued the 
    greater part of the day rendering the roads quite slippery.  We were, though tired 
    and wanting sleep, still on duty all day and part of the night.  We could not keep 
    the town clear of stragglers though we worked hard as our fatigued conditions 
    would permit.  General Smith sent a detachment of 254 men to our assistance 
    this evening and with this assistance we soon had the town cleared.  We now 
    mess together and I have learned nearly all their names.  I have for some time 
    known them when I would see them but could not get all their names.  Some of 
    the Guard I find to be very agreeable companions.
    March 14, 1862
    Nothing of importance occurred today.  A Mr. Taylor kindly invited Sgt. Levins, 
    Lampe and I to occupy some rooms in a furnished house belonging to his son.
    [Note:  This is the first instance of true hospitality I met with in Virginia.]
    Of course, we gladly assented.  We found servants to work for us, and feather 
    beds to sleep in.  It has been a long time since I ate at a table and slept in a 
    feather bed.
    Sunday, March 16, 1862
    On duty at Major Boyle’s office.  We are highly pleased with our new lodgings.  
    We enjoy almost every comfort of home.  We know this cannot possibly last long 
    so we make the best of it.  Dum vivimus, vivamus.
    Monday, March 17, 1862
    On duty at the depot examining the trains as they leave.  Nothing of interest 
    occurred until about 2:00 when Sgts. Levins and Lampe got into a fight with the 
    bar keeper of the “Piedmont House” and a crowd of his friends.  They were 
    examining a room in that hotel where they had been informed liquor was kept 
    and sold contrary to orders.  Unfortunately, the, i.e., Sgts. Levins and Lampe, 
    were the only members of our guard present and before aid could be sent, the 
    mob overpowered them.  At last the tumult was quelled and the leaders locked up.  
    General Longstreet’s division passed through this morning.  Gong on duty in 
    another part of town, I could not see this far famed body of troops.  My regiment 
    camped near town tonight.  Several officers from that regiment came uptown 
    tonight among them was Lt. C.S. Alexander of my company.
    [Note:  Afterwards captain of Company C, 4th Regiment N.C.S.T., wounded in 
    the Battle of Chancellorsville in May of 1863, leg amputated, died]
    Tuesday, March 18, 1862
    Our rest day.  I finished the “Rifle Rangers” by Capt. Moyne Reid, which I have 
    been reading since I came to this house. I was glad to grasp the hand of my
    friend Lt. Wm. A. Kerr.  I went out to the regiment this evening—this has been 
    a beautiful day—clear, warm and reminding me of spring.
    [Note:  William A. Kerr became captain of Company C, 4th Regiment N.C.S.T. 
    and resigned in February, 1863 on account of bad health and was succeeded 
    by Lt. Alexander.]
    Wednesday, March 19, 1862
    Nothing of importance today.  I wrote—or rather started to write—a letter to 
    Cousin P.R. Chambers.  Our brigade passed through this morning.
    Thursday, March 20, 1862
    Finished my letter commenced yesterday.  Nothing else worthy of recording.
    Friday, March 21, 1862
    Nothing worthy of note today.
    Saturday, March 22, 1862
    Remained in our quarters nearly all day reading “Vivian Dortnam”, or “a Wife’s 
    Honor” by Reynolds.
    Sunday, March 23, 1862
    Fraley, Wallace, Hanes and I were sent off in the cars.  Fraley and Wallace 
    stopped off at Rapid Ann station in order to visit our regiment which is camped 
    in the vicinity.  I went to Orange Court House and Hanes went to Gordonsville. 
     I made a visit to Mrs. Boyle, wife of our major and provost marshal.  She is, I 
    think, a most excellent lady.  In the evening, a large number of recruits passed 
    through Orange Court House on their way to our regiment.  I stayed in the agent’s 
    office all night waiting in vain for a train.
    Monday, March 24, 1862
    I felt quite badly this morning after sitting up all night.  About 10:00 a freight 
    train came down from Gordonsville but would go no further than Orange.  Lts. 
    White and Falls of our regiment with some more recruits, came down on this 
    train.  Hanes came also as there was no prospect of any train any further down.  
    Hanes and I concluded we would walk to Culpepper Court House some 18 
    miles distant.  The recruits came down to Rapid Ann with us.  After a long and 
    tiresome walk we reached our destination about dark.  I received through Lt. 
    White a letter from my fair friend Miss Mollie E. S------.
    Tuesday, March 25, 1862
    I was quite late this morning but was very much surprised to find I suffered so 
    little from the effects of my tramp yesterday on the cross ties.  I remained in 
    our quarters most of the day.
    Wednesday, March 26, 1862
    Today Wallace and I were ordered to go up the railroad.  Lampe had gone to our 
    regiment yesterday.  Hanes was sick and got Sgt. Levins to take his place.  More 
    fortunate than on the last day I went and I got right back on a train.  I, however, 
    had many misgivings before the train hove into sight at Orange Court House where 
    I had again stopped.  I received four letters today which I ought to have gotten some 
    time ago.  They had been sent to Manassas, then to Gordonsville, then to Culpepper 
    Court House, then to Orange Court House, then to the regiment, then by hand to 
    Culpepper again.  I passed them on may way to Culpepper and by going up the
     road today I got them.  Two were from Miss Mollie E. S-----, Miss Mary C.M------.
    Thursday, March 27, 1862
    Hanes and I remained nearly all day in our quarters.  It has been a lovely day.  
    It seems as though spring is nearly on us.
    The Landmark, October 11, 1923
    Friday, March 28, 1862
    Nothing of interest today.  It has been a warm, clear day.
    Saturday, March 29, 1862
    I had scarcely composed myself for sleep last night on the softest plank I could find 
    when my orders came from Major Boyle to pack up immediately.  We packed our 
    own and Major Boyle’s goods and chattels, carried them to the depot and put them 
    on the cars.  Not until nearly 2:00 did I get a chance to close my eyes and then it 
    was in an open box car with flour bags for a bed and the breast of my friend Hanes 
    for a pillow.  I could not sleep for the cold.  This morning we were all on tip toe 
    expecting to leave Culpepper.  But, as luck would have it, we did not get any 
    marching orders.  Hanes and I were sent off in charge of our baggage.  Fraley 
    with some confiscated property in the shape of whiskey, run and wine.  Lampe 
    was also sent to Orange Court House with some prisoners.  The remainder of 
    us were left behind—some of us, myself among that number, without even a 
    Sunday, March 30, 1862
    Last night, Sgt. Jones, Wallace and I built a good fire in our quarters and lay down 
    before it and slept or rather attempted to sleep.  This day passed away and yet no 
    orders to march and what is worse the Commissary sent off every ounce of provisions.
    Monday, March 31, 1862
    Still at Culpepper—slept alone in our quarters.  Sgt. Jones and Wallace got a bed in 
    another house.  J.C. Calhoun died twelve years ago today.
    Tuesday, April 1, 1862
    April Fool’s Day.  I have had neither time or inclination to write any April Fools today.  
    Last night I slept at Major Boyle’s office, the house in which I have been staying 
    having been taken over by the quartermaster of the post.  This morning, Sgt. Jones, 
    Wallace and I—the remainder of our squad being up the road—were sent further up 
    the road with some medicines.  We arrived at Gordonsville in due time where we 
    found Fraley and Hanes, Lampe having joined us at Orange Court House.  We 
    found Captain Chipley’s quarters, stored our baggage in his depot, drew rations, 
    and are doing fine.
    Wednesday, April 2, 1862
    After a good night’s sleep, I arose and after breakfast, helped Col. Chipley arrange 
    the boxes in the depot.  Sgt. Andrews of my company and several others from our 
    regiment came up this morning.  Sgt. Andrews brought me a letter from cousin 
    P.B. Chambers offering me the position of first lieutenant in his company.
    [I became captain of this company, Company C, 49th N.C.T., on December 3, 
    1862—cousin P.B. Chambers being promoted to Major.]
    In the evening, orders from Major Boyle that we should immediately repair to 
    Culpepper Court House, We took the first train and got to that place about 
    midnight.  Today, 119 years ago, Thomas Jefferson was born.
    Thursday, April 3, 1862
    At Culpepper Court House doing nothing.
    Friday, April 4, 1862
    Ditto—as yesterday.
    Saturday, April 5, 1862
    Today it rained—nothing else worth recording.
    Sunday, April 6, 1862
    This has been a beautiful day.  For the first time since I left home, I went to church 
    and for the first time in my life I went to hear an Episcopalian minister.
    [Note:  Afterwards badly treated by the Yankees because he would not pray for the 
    president of the U.S.]
    Rev. M. Coles preached an excellent sermon.  He alluded in a just and discriminating 
    manner to our present troubles.
    Monday, April 7, 1862
    It rained today.  About noon, Major Boyle received orders to move to Orange Court 
    House forthwith.  We started on our march at 3:00 and got to Mitchell’s Station.  It 
    rained first and then that turned to snow.  Seven others and myself found lodging at 
    a Mr. Wharton’s and better quarters and a warmer hospitality I am sure we could not 
    have met with anywhere else in the land.  
    [Note:  This is the second instance of true hospitality in Virginia.]
    Tuesday, April 8, 1862
    We much regret, we left the hospitable mansion of Mr. Wharton and resumed our 
    march in the cold.  Good Mr. Wharton, long will we remember your kindness to 
    eight hunger, wet and weary soldiers.  May you and your amiable daughter long 
    live and be able to do good.  We arrived at Orange Court House about 3:00 and 
    without rest or anything to eat except a pie or two and I and 14 others to guard 
    at night.
    Wednesday, April 9, 1862
    I slept a good part of the day.  It was a very bad day, raining and freezing.  I had 
    to stand guard again tonight.  I had a much worse post than I did last night—as 
    bad as I ever did in my life.  Our brigade passed here today—destination unknown.
    Thursday, April 10, 1862
    Rest today. This town is one of the most muddy in Virginia.  The continued wet 
    weather and the army wagons having cut up the streets in a terrible manner.  
    William Sudderth—one of the prisoners we brought from Culpepper today—
    escaped from the guard house tonight.
    Friday, April 11, 1862
    Nothing of importance today.  Capt. Crandall, commanding at Culpepper Court 
    House, sent up four prisoners today.
    Saturday, April 11, 1862
    This is the anniversary of Henry Clay’s birthday and of an event memorable in the 
    history of the C.S.A.—the Battle of Fort Sumter.  Just 84 years after Clay was 
    born the Battle of Fort Sumter took place.  Lt. Finkhouser of the 49th Regiment 
    Virginia Volunteers placed four men in the guard house for safe keeping tonight.
    Sunday, April 13, 1862
    We sent eight prisoners to Richmond.  Lt. Moffett with Lampe and Culvert, took 
    them.  Lt. Funkhouser took his men also, leaving but two in the guard house.  The 
    Culpepper Minute Men arrived last night to relieve us of sentinel duty.
    Monday, April 14, 1862
    Nothing of importance today.
    Tuesday, April 15, 1862
    Lampe and Calvert returned from Richmond today.  Charlie Jones brought my trunk 
    down from Gordonsville.
    Wednesday, April 16, 1862
    This has been a beautiful day—sunshine and shade, pleasantly intermixed—rather 
    warm for the season.  One year ago today the North Carolina forts and arsenals 
    were taken at least so says the Confederate States Almanac for 1862.  I wrote a 
    letter to Miss Mollie E. S----- and one to Kiah H. Sadler today.
    Thursday, April 17, 1862
    A lovely day, I employed myself at reading and writing and I helping to pack up guns.  
    I received a letter today from my friend and classmate at Davidson College E. Payson 
    George.  He was at Raleigh, N.C.
    [Became Captain and A.C.S. of the 49th N.C.R.]
    The Landmark, October 12, 1923
    Thursday, May 8, 1862
    This has been a beautiful day.  I spent a greater part of it with my friends of the 
    7th Regiment N.C.S.T.  Various rumors were afloat today concerning the 
    operations on the peninsula.  The 16th Regiment Virginia troops got here last 
    night.  This evening we went to pick up the property of the 33rd (Col. C.M. Avery’s) 
    and of the 12th Regiment N.C.t.
    Friday, May 9, 1862
    Today I met with an old school mate James Collins.  He is in the 12th Regiment 
    N.C.T.  I received a letter today from my friend Miss Mary C. M-----.  Col. C. 
    Lee’s 37th N.C.T. went to the Rapidan this evening.
    Saturday, May 10, 1862
    I am not well today.  This has been a warm, sunny day.  We have heard that 
    there was a victory in the vicinity of Harrisonburg.
    Sunday, May 11, 1862
    Nothing new today.  I am still unwell.  This has been a clear, warm day.  
    Rumors and reports only do we hear from the peninsula and from the southwest.
    Monday, May 12, 1862
    A woman from, or pretending to be from, Washington City, was brought here today 
    and sent on to Richmond.  She had been taken up somewhere on our lines.  
    Nothing else of importance today.
    Tuesday, May 13, 1862
    A very pleasant day.  I took a ramble in the country.
    Wednesday, May 14, 1862
    This morning it commenced raining and the day has been a rainy one.
    Tuesday, May 15, 1862
    It rained nearly all day making it very unpleasant outdoors.  No news of importance 
    today from the war.  Commodore Tatnall of the navy has passed here in the cars 
    today.  Sgt. Jones has gone to Richmond with a woman who has just crossed the
    Friday, May 16, 1862
    General Branch’s brigade moved off this morning to join General Ewell.  Away went 
    my friends—Major Hill, Lts. Hill, Pool, Green and Dickey.
    Saturday, May 17, 1862
    Today I am 21 years of age.  I am now in the eyes of the law responsible for my 
    own actions. I have always felt I would feel quite important on my 21st birthday 
    but if I had any feeling other than ordinary it is sadness because of my having 
    attained the age of manhood without being sufficiently prepared for its responsibilities.  
    I fell keenly my lack of proper improvement in knowledge.  This feeling is rendered still 
    more humiliating when I think how good would have been my chances for gaining 
    knowledge.  May I be influenced to make better use of my time.  Today Lampe, C.f. 
    Miller, C.J. Johnson and I were appointed corporals by Major Boyle to run upon the 
    trains from this place (Gordonsville) to Richmond and Lynchburg.  Lampe and I run 
    to Richmond and Johnston and Miller to Lynchburg.  Sgt. Jones, Litchfield and I 
    sere sent down to Richmond with six Yankee and one citizen prisoners.
    Sunday, May 18, 1862
    This morning we saw some officers and some sick men from our regiment and 
    learned that our regiment was within a few miles of this city and was expected 
    to pass through the city today.  It was thought that it would be sent to the south 
    side of the James River.  We left the city at 7:30 am and got to Gordonsville at 
    Monday, May 19, 1862
    Nothing of importance took place until the train came.  The train from Richmond 
    was delayed on account of the engine giving out.  I was to have gone to Richmond 
    but Major Boyle wished another to go.  I was then sent to Lynchburg but only got 
    to Chancellorsville.  The Lynchburg train had just left before we arrived.  A freight 
    train came from Charlottesville to Gordonsville on which Corporals Johnston and 
    Miller and myself came down. Johnston and Miller had been delayed on account 
    of the trains not making connections.  I was charmed with the country around 
    Charlottesville—beautiful, rolling country.  The scenery along the River Anna is 
    indescribably beautiful.
    Tuesday, May 20, 1862
    On the 20th May, 1775, North Carolina declared herself independent of England.
    Friday, May 23, 1862
    Nothing of importance happened until the cars came.  The Orange cars brought 
    in one solitary Yankee prisoner with whom J.L. Wallace was detailed to go to 
    Richmond.  This was my day to go down.  The up train was delayed—much 
    behind time on account of the enemy being near the railroad nine miles from 
    Richmond.  We took the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad at 
    Hanover Junction and arrived very nearly at the proper time.  Shortly after getting 
    into the city, we met with Findley who had come down two days before with some 
    prisoners and had gone to our regiment.  Wallace and myself, after walking around 
    for a while, went into the Central cars and went to sleep.
    Saturday, May 24, 1862
    This morning I got up a little after daybreak and walked around until the cars 
    started. We met with Julius Simonton, J.S. Miller and Thomas Watts of Iredell 
    County, N.C., at the depot.  They were on their way to visit the 7th Regiment at 
    or near Hanover Court House.  We arrived at Gordonsville all safe and sound.  
    Today one year ago the Federals occupied Alexandria, Virginia.
    Sunday, May 25, 1862
    Wrote an answer to a letter received yesterday from Sgt. Jno. A.S. Fe-meter 
    (partially illegible last name). About 11:30 the train started for Richmond where 
    it arrived at 5:30.  I went to Dr. Rev. I.V. Moore’s church (1st Presbyterian) 
    where, after an impressive prayer by the pastor a sermon was preached by 
    that eminent divine Rev. Moses Hoge, D.D.  I took supper at the “American 
    Hotel” and slept by invitation at Mr. James W. Ballantine’s room.
    [Note:  Major Boyle’s clerk detailed from the 1st Virginia by order of General 
    Monday, Jay 26, 1862
    At 6:30 we started from the city to Gordonsville.  J.W. Ballantine, one of Major 
    Boyle’s clerks, who has been in Richmond on business for about a week, came 
    up this morning.  We arrived at Gordonsville a little after 1:00.  In the evening 
    Foley and I went and took a wash and got some washing done.
    Tuesday, May 27, 1862
    Today one year ago New Orleans and Mobile were invested by the blockading 
    squadron of the U.S.  I went down to Richmond this evening.  Hoskins went along 
    having three men in charge.  These three men had just gotten through from 
    Alexandria.  I got to the city about 6:00 but could not get clear of the prisoners 
    until 8:00.  We then went to the theater and saw “William Tell” and “Buttons All 
    Over Me” and Miss Portington dance.  We slept in the cars.
    Wednesday, May 28, 1862
    We heard this morning that the enemy had gotten possession of the Fredericksburg 
    Railroad—the only communication to the northward of the city.  However, our train 
    started and went as far as Ashland where we found the report as to the possession 
    of the road to be true.  Our train, loaded with sick and wounded, was sent back to 
    Richmond.  Hoskins and I got passports and transportation to go to Gordonsville 
    by way of Lynchburg.  We then walked around to see what we could see.  We 
    concluded not to go to the theater tonight.
    Thursday, May 29, 1862
    This morning about 8:00 we left for Richmond from the Danville depot on one of 
    the longest trains I ever saw.  It required three engines to pull it.  At Brukesville, 
    we took the South Side Railroad for Lynchburg at which place we arrived about 
    5:00 pm. It is a much prettier place than I had been led to anticipate.  It is situated 
    on the south side of the James River on a bluff.  Three railroads—“South Side”, 
    “Virginia & Tennessee” and “Orange & Alexandria”, have their terminus there.  We 
    slept in the cars of the Orange & Alexandria.
    Friday, May 30, 1862
    We left Lynchburg at 5:50 this morning and got to Charlottesville at 9:30 and to 
    Gordonsville by noon.  We saw the University of Virginia and “Monticello”, the 
    residence of Jefferson.  I received a letter today from Miss Mary C. M-----.
    Saturday, May 31, 1862
    The beautiful month of May is gone and tomorrow will enter upon June.  Today one 
    year ago the Battle of Fairfax Court House in Virginia was fought.  Nothing of 
    interest to report.
    Sunday, June 1, 1862
    Spring is gone and summer begins today.  The year rolls swiftly on and almost 
    unnoticed for months and then the seasons glide by.  It has been cloudy nearly all 
    day and about dark a fearful cloud rose over the west hills but finally passed without 
    giving us a shower.  We hard this morning that the enemy were within 30 miles of 
    this place, advancing in different directions with no force to oppose them.  Major 
    Boyle sent out some scouts who got back about dark without having learned anything 
    about the enemy.
    Monday, June 2, 1862
    Nothing of interest occurred until noon.  I finished a letter to Miss Mollie E. S-----.  
    Lampe, Gilbert and I were sent down to Orange Court House to arrest some 
    deserters and found that two of the men wanted were five miles out in the country.  
    We concluded to stay at the court house until morning and make an early start.  
    We took quarters at the “Orange Hotel” kept by T.W. Weldon.  The night was 
    exceedingly warm and sultry and the clouds indicate rain.
    Tuesday, June 3, 1862
    We started at 3:30 this morning to find our men.  It had rained during the night 
    and the roads were muddy and the stream swollen.  We, however, got to our 
    destination without a great deal of difficulty.  We were treated to a nice breakfast.  
    We got back to Orange Court House a few minutes too late to get on the train for 
    Gordonsville.  We again took quarters at “Weldon’s Hotel” at which we also kept 
    our prisoners.  We find out today that our regiment (4th N.C.S.T.) had been in a
    battle near Richmond and conducted itself nobly.  I was pained to learn that many 
    of our men had fallen.  Only a partial list of the commissioned officers, but among 
    them were Lt. Jas. C. White of my company, Capt. A.K. Simonton and Lt. McRorie 
    of Company A, all of Iredell County.
    [Note, Lt. McRorie was NOT killed.]
    Wednesday, June 4, 1862
    Last night and today it rained very hard.  We got our prisoners on board and 
    got to Gordonsville all safe and sound.  Major Boyle put the men in the guard 
    house.  I got two letters today.  One from Miss Mollie E. S----- and the other 
    from Kiah H. Sadler
    Thursday, June 5, 1862
    It was cloudy nearly all day. Nothing of importance took place.
    Friday, June 6, 1862
    Nothing of interest today.  I finished a letter to Miss Mollie E. S-----, and wrote 
    to Sgt. Jno. A.S. Feimster.  Major Boyle went to Amherst Court House to see 
    his wife.  C.R. Jones and Keistler took some prisoners to Richmond.  Lampe 
    and I went strawberry hunting this evening and got about two quarts.
    The Landmark, October 25, 1923
    Sunday, June 8, 1862
    This has been a pleasant, beautiful day.  I occupied myself with reading most 
    of the day.  This is Whitsunday and today 17 years ago Andrew Jackson died.
    Monday, June 9, 1862
    Nothing much happened today.  It is a pretty day, clear sky, warm sun, 
    tempered with a cool, northwest wind.
    Tuesday, June 10, 1862
    This is the anniversary of the Battle at Great Bethel at which the Confederates 
    won a signal victory and in which the 1st Regiment N.C. Volunteers under the 
    command of Colonel (now Major General) D.H. Hill greatly distinguished itself.  
    The day ahs been uncommonly cool for the season. A fire was comfortable all 
    Wednesday, June 11, 1962
    Nothing of much importance occurred until afternoon.  Then Lampe, Hanes and 
    I were started out to arrest some deserters in the country east of Orange Court 
    House.  Our horses were none of the best and our saddles worse still.  Passing 
    through Orange Court House, we arrived near the scene of the operation a little 
    before sunset.  We stayed all night at Mr. William Jones, a resident.  He was 
    one of the men we were after but treated us very kind.
    Thursday, June 12, 1862
    We started early for Orange Court House with the three men in order to get there 
    for the train.  We got to the court house at 8:00 but finding that no train would pass 
    before evening, we concluded to go ahead.  By riding and walking we got to 
    Gordonsville about 3:00.
    Friday, June 13, 1862
    This was a warm day.  J.L. Wallace went to Richmond with a Yankee and some 
    citizen prisoners.  Lampe, Hanes, Fraley, Litchfield and I went strawberry hunting.  
    Three Yankee prisoners were brought in by courier.  Lt. Updike who with three men 
    went up in the mountains a few days ago to arrest some deserters returned this 
    evening with the seven men who had been arrested.  They were put in the guard 
    house with the Yankees.  They were all strong, healthy looking men.
    Saturday, June 14, 1862
    This was a hot, sultry day.  We had no trains or mail today.  Hanes, Leinster, 
    H.S. Wallace and I went down and took a wash and got some strawberries and 
    cherries.  Nothing else of interest took place today.
    Sunday, June 15, 1862
    The first part of the day was hot but about the middle of the evening a hard rain 
    came on and cooled the air considerably.  Fire was very comfortable during the 
    night.  Lt. Updike, Lampe, Keistler, Miller, Smith, Ridenhouer, Culbert and two 
    couriers went after deserters this morning.
    Monday, June 16, 1862
    This has been a very pleasant day—not hot enough to be uncomfortable at any 
    time.  Sgt. Levins, Fraley and Hanes with two men from Captain Bunn’s company 
    (this company are here from General Branch’s brigade to guard duty) went to 
    Richmond today with 13 Yankees and 7 citizens (deserters, rather) prisoners.  
    Litchfield, Leinster, Ballantine and I went out about a mile and got some cherries.  
    I got a letter from Miss Mary C. M----- today.
    Tuesday, June 17, 1862
    I have the never ending song “nothing of importance today” to record.  It has been 
    a dull day indeed. I wrote to Miss M.C. M----- in answer to the one I received from 
    her yesterday.
    Wednesday, June 18, 1862
    Major Boyle went on a visit to Amherst Court House today to see his wife and 
    family.  Lt. Updike, Miller, Ritenhouse and Keistler returned on the Orange & 
    Alexandria Railroad bringing with them five deserters.  The other boys that went 
    away with Lt. Updike were to bring the horses and get here tonight.  After dark, 
    a message was brought from them by two horsemen that they had arrested eight 
    men and needed assistance.  Leinster and Keistler went down.  We had a 
    refreshing summer shower this evening.  No news from the armies.
    Thursday, June 19, 1862
    Leinster, Durelle and Kiestler came back a little before daylight.  They found our 
    men at Orange Court House.  The men arrived here about 12:00 with eight men.  
    Colbert and Creel came in this evening with two men.  Major General Thomas J. 
    Jackson [Note: he became Lt. Gen., was wounded through mistake by his own 
    men at Chancellorsville in May of 1863 and died], the celebrated Stonewall Jackson, 
    with about 3,000 troops arrived at this place.  This arrival came upon us like a clap 
    of thunder.  There is some important movement on hand but no one can even surmise 
    what it is.  He has been re-enforced as of late—the troops here are some of these 
    re-enforcements.  They are Georgians of General Lawton’s command and are just 
    from Savannah.  General Lawton is here.  General Jackson is a very ordinary looking 
    man and a little above medium height.  He is very shabbily dressed with a shaggy 
    black beard, very prominent chin and a mouth indicating decision.
    Friday, June 20, 1862
    Today more trains passed through carrying General Jackson’s men, General 
    Hood’s and General Whiting’s troops passed through.  I saw General hood.  I 
    also saw the 6th Regiment N.C.T.—the whole regiment organized by the lamented 
    Col. C.F. Fisher.  I saw and conversed with Lt. Col. Isaac F. Avery, [Note:  He 
    became a colonel] and Capt. A.C. Avery of the 6th.
    [Note:  I.F. Avery became Colonel and A.C. Avery a Major on General D.H. Hill’s 
    staff.  He inspected us—49th N.C.T. today, May 27, 1863]  General Jackson is 
    still here.  I received a letter from Aunt Ruth A. Chambers today.  The quiet village 
    of Gordonsville is all bustle and confusion.
    Saturday, June 21, 1862
    This has been a warm, clear day.  Troops have been passing all day.  General 
    Ewell arrived today. 
    [Note:  He was wounded at the second Battle of Manassas and had his leg 
    General Jackson is still here.  General Ewell is a man of very poor appearance 
    and is very shabbily dressed. The 21st N.C. Regiment arrived this evening and I 
    had the pleasure of grasping the hand of my friend A.A. Anderson.
    The Landmark, October 29, 1923
    Sunday, June 22, 1862
    Troops were moving through town all morning.  Infantry, cavalry, artillery, followed 
    each other in close succession. Long trains of baggage wagons dragged themselves 
    along after each detachment.  Several of the boys and I went on a washing and 
    cherry hunting expedition after which Lampe and I took a long walk which we will
    long remember.  It was late indeed when we returned.
    Monday, June 23, 1862
    Today Hanes, Litchfield, Lampe and I had to stand picket at the M.E. Church to 
    prevent stragglers from going out in that direction.  We remained there until about 
    1:00 when Fraley and Keistler took our places. Litchfiedl and I went cherry hunting 
    in the evening.  Nothing else of moment today.
    Tuesday, June 24, 1862
    This morning I got a letter from my lady friend Miss Mollie E. S-----.  Lampe and 
    I received the first copy of the “Iredell Express” to which we subscribed some 
    time ago.  I was delighted to see it once more.  I seemed almost like a letter 
    from home.  Three or four empty trains passed by going in the direction of 
    Charlottesville.  They have been busy transporting General Jackson’s army down 
    the Central Railroad, towards Richmond.  I wrote two letters to cousin P.B. 
    Chambers, one directed to Richmond and the other to Petersburg.  I also wrote 
    to Aunt Ruth A. Chambers.  Sgt. Jones, Leinster, Colbert and Wallace went to 
    Richmond with the prisoners.
    Wednesday, June 25, 1862
    I occupied myself in writing and reading the newspapers.  Nothing worthy of 
    recording occurred today.
    Thursday, June 26, 1862
    Nothing of importance occurred today.  Fraley, Litchfield and I went out on a 
    washing and cherry picking expedition.  No news of consequence from the seat 
    of the war.  I finished a letter to Miss Mollie E. S-----.
    Friday, June 27, 1862
    Today Lt. Updike and H.S. Wallace started to Richmond with prisoners.  Major 
    Boyle to Amherst to see his wife.  Sgt. Levins to General Jackson’s army with 
    prisoners. Lampe, Fraley, Hanes and I went down on the cars to Culpepper Court 
    House and returned.  No reliable news today.  There is a rumor that there was a 
    fight in the vicinity of Richmond yesterday and that the armies were engaged again 
    today but it is only a rumor.
    Saturday, June 28, 1862
    Today Sgt. Jones, Wallace, Leinster and Major Boyle all got back.  They brought 
    news of the fight near Richmond.  All reports agree that our forces have been 
    successful.  A telegram last night states that our forces had taken six prisoners 
    and three generals and a large amount of cannon.  This, however, is one of the first 
    reports—today 26 years ago James Madison died.  We had a slight shower of rain 
    this evening.  Durelle and I took a walk and met up with some young ladies and 
    enjoyed ourselves very much.
    Sunday, June 29, 1862
    A warm and beautiful day.  Late in the day one of the most terrific looking clouds I 
    ever saw rose in the northwest and passed down the Rapidan.  It was of inky 
    blackness while the vivid lightening illuminated that blackness and played around its 
    borders.  Nothing of specific interest took place today. Reports confirm the news of 
    the continuation of the great struggle below Richmond.
    Monday, June 30, 1862
    Sgt. Levins and Litchfield started to Richmond with some prisoners.  Lampe went 
    to Lynchburg in Corporal Miller’s place.  Durelle and I went down the O. & A. 
    Railroad and met up with some nice young ladies who were gathering cherries.  
    We enjoyed ourselves “HUGELY”.  It has been a clear, warm day.  Sgt. Jones, 
    Fraley and two couriers went down to a little village to Mechanicsville to arrest some 
    deserters but failed.  June is gone.  Half of 1862 is over and an eventful six months 
    it has been.  Hard battles have been fought and many valuable lives lost.  Reports 
    from Richmond still agree that our men are driving the enemy before them.
    Tuesday, July 1, 1862
    The heat of the sun was tempered by hazy clouds.  Hanes, Keistler, H.S. 
    Wallace and I went down the O. & A. Railroad about a mile and got a basket 
    full of cherries.  Major Scott’s battalion of “Partisan Rangers” arrived here from 
    Charlottesville on their way to the Culpepper Court House.  They are a rowdy, 
    drunken set and do a great deal more harm than good for the government.  They 
    had not been here fifteen minutes until they had broken into three houses and 
    stolen many articles.  About dark they got started for Culpepper.  I do sincerely 
    pity the town and community upon which these men are shortly to be thrown.
    Wednesday, July 2, 1862
    This was a rainy day throughout from morning to dewey evening.  I had yesterday 
    taken my only good pair of shoes to the shop for repair and was in consequence 
    “housed up” all day.  To make the matter worse, when I went to the shop to get 
    them today some one had paid for and taken them away.  I got a letter from Miss 
    Mary C. M----- today.  We got good news from the great fight below Richmond 
    today.  Captain Jno. B. Andrews, the captain of my company, was wounded.  
    David C. Brandon, one of my school mates and neighbors, was killed.  Robert M. 
    Holmes and R.O. Hair of my company are reported as killed.  They were two of 
    the best soldiers in the company.
    Thursday, July 3, 1862
    A clear, beautiful day.  Nothing of importance transpired today.  There was a sale 
    of the effects of T.E. Jackson, deceased, in town today.  Sgt. Jones, four others 
    and I went out on a cherry hunting expedition and brought back about a half bushel.  
    We anticipate high living until they are gone.  I wrote a letter in answer to one 
    received yesterday from my fair lady friend Miss Mary C. M-----.
    Friday, July 4, 1862
    One year ago today I was in the army.  We were at “Camp Hill” in Northampton 
    County, N.C.  This evening I witnessed one of the most painful scenes I have ever 
    beheld.  The wood train of the Central Railroad started for Charlottesville about 
    sundown.  Hanes and I had started walking along the Charlottesville Road.  We 
    had gone about a half mile when the train passed us by at a terrific speed.  It 
    had not gone very far when it stopped.  When we got to the train, we found that 
    four of the “flats” which were loaded with wood were thrown off the track and were 
    considerably smashed.  Three of the hands were wounded, one in the head, one 
    in the shoulder and the other in the right leg.  The latter man had a leg broken off 
    just above the ankle and the foot horribly smashed.  Amputation was found to be 
    necessary.  The track was very badly town up.  The accident was caused by an 
    axle of the tender breaking while the train was running too fast.  Today 31 years 
    ago James Madison of Virginia died.  Lampe went to Richmond today.  I will have 
    to go tomorrow.  He and I will have to go to the city every day for a while.
    The Landmark, November 1, 1923
    Today I went to Richmond and saw Captain John B. Andrews and Lt. William A. 
    Kerr of my company.  Captain Anderson was wounded in the right hand and 
    shoulder.  The ball passed through his hand and lodged in his shoulder.  He was 
    in the act of drawing his sword when he received the shot.  He is at a private 
    residence and dong well.  Lt. Kerr and I took supper at a Mrs. Howe’s and slept in 
    the cars of the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad.
    Sunday, July 6, 1862
    Lampe and I got together this morning.  He was too late for the cars yesterday 
    morning and consequently got left.  We started at 6:00 in the morning and got 
    to Gordonsville about 11:30.  In the evening, Lampe, Fraley and I took a walk 
    down the O. & A. Railroad.  We went about five and a half miles.  Today 27 years 
    ago that eminent statesman John Marshall died.
    Monday, July 7, 1862
    This was one of the hottest days that I ever experienced.  I went down to 
    Richmond and met up with a great many acquaintances from North Carolina – 
    F.A. hall, R. Porter Matheson, Wm. Marshall, Lt. Andrew A. Hill, Edwin Falls, 
    Esq., and Dr. D.B. Wood.  I saw Captain J.B. Andrews and Dr. Marshall Bell.  
    I slept in the N.C. Depot with my friend R. Matheson who also gave me a good 
    supply of goodies brought from home.
    Tuesday, July 8, 1862
    Early this morning I took leave of my friends and was soon on my way back 
    to Gordonsville where, without anything worthy of notice, we arrived about 11:30. 
    I received letters today from Kiah H. Sadler, Miss Mary R. Kimball and Aunt Ruth 
    A. Chambers.  This was another oppressive, hot, sultry day.
    Wednesday, July 9, 1862
    I occupied myself in writing nearly all day.  I wrote four letters:  Aunt Ruth A. 
    Chambers, Mary R. Kimball, Kiah H. Sadler and Captain P.B. Chambers.  I 
    received a sweet letter from my fair Miss Mollie E. S----- today.  Today was 
    another hot, sultry day as were the last three days.  I got J.L. Wallace to go to 
    Richmond in my place today.  No news of any importance.  Twelve years ago 
    today General Zachary Taylor died.
    Thursday, July 10, 1862
    I wrote a letter to my friend and faithful correspondent Miss Mollie E. S-----.  We 
    had a refreshing shower of rain this evening but not enough to do us  much good.
    Friday, July 11, 1862
    I went to Richmond today and saw Captain Andrews, Julius Simonton, Dr. R. 
    Campbell, and Dr. W. Campbell who is the surgeon of the 7th Regiment N.C.T.  
    Mr. Simonton and I went to the 4th Regiment where we saw Lt. W.A. Kerr.
    [Note:  Kerr became captain upon Captain Andrew’s death.  He resigned in 
    February of 1863.]
    I also saw Sgt. Trougman and all the other boys of our company who wee not 
    asleep.  I also saw Lt. C.S. Alexander, the new acting quartermaster of our 
    [Note:  Alexander succeeded Captain Kerr, was wounded at Chancellorsville 
    in May of 1863 and died in consequence of the amputation of his leg.]
    We got back to Richmond at 12:00.  I slept in the cars at the R.R. & F.R.R. 
    Saturday, July 12, 1862
    My feet were very sore this morning as a consequence of my long walk last 
    night on the pavement and the cross ties.  We got to Gordonsville at 11:00 am.  
    The Yankees were this evening reported to be seven miles this side of Culpepper 
    Court House.
    Sunday, July 13, 1862
    This morning we learned that the Yankees were at Rapid Ann Station and 
    had burned the railroad bridge at that point.  I then heard that the enemy 
    had arrived at Orange Court House.  I went to Richmond taking my trunk.  
    When I left, the commissioner and quartermaster stores were being loaded 
    up for removal.  There was considerable excitement in town.  We got to 
    Richmond and I saw Captain Andrews, who, I fear, has taken typhoid fever.   
    I saw Captain Wood, Dr. Wood, Joseph Knox.
    [Note:  Captain Wood became major and subsequently lieutenant colonel 
    of the 4th N.C.S.T.]  
    I sent up to the cars about 11:00 and found several trains made up to carry 
    troops away.  However, I went in and made a bed out of seats and was soon 
    oblivious to all things around me.
    Monday, July 14, 1862
    This morning when I woke up I was still in Richmond, the troops not having 
    yet come.  I was mortified to find that some individual unknown to me had 
    very quietly taken charge of my coat and cap which were lying at my head.  
    He had, however, dropped my cap outside of the cars but my coat in which 
    were two find silk handkerchiefs and my memorandum book worth $2.  As 
    good fortune would have it, my trunk was with me and I got another coat.  
    The troops (General Trimble’s Brigade) came.  About 6:00  they got on the 
    cars and we started about 7:00 and got on the Central cars at the burned 
    bridge at 9:00.
    Tuesday, July 15, 1862
    The day wore quietly away until afternoon when copious showers fell.  Two 
    trains arrived from the direction of Richmond, heavily laden with troops.  
    They were principally, if not altogether, Louisiana troops belonging to General 
    Taylor’s brigade of Ewell’s division.  I understand that Stonewall Jackson is 
    coming to this part of the state with three divisions of Ewell’s, Whiting’s and 
    his own old division.  Today they put part of our guard belonging to the 49th 
    Virginia Volunteers starting to their regiment.  Major Boyle received orders 
    for their release.  This left us with only ten men and two sergeants.
    Wednesday, July 16, 1862
    Nothing of interest took place until late in the evening when three or four 
    trains arrived filled to their utmost capacity with soldiers.  Among the 
    regiments that arrived were the 13th Virginia in which is the “Culpepper 
    Minute Men”.  This company was with Major Boyle at Orange Court House 
    and for some time at this place also.  During the day we had several refreshing 
    showers.  They were not, however, very refreshing to the soldiers around here 
    who are without coats.  I wrote another letter to Capt. P.B. Chambers today.  
    I sent it to Richmond with Lampe, who went down late this evening on one of 
    the trains.
    July 17 to July 20 illegible:  transcriber
    The Landmark, November 8, 1923
    July 21, 1862
    One year ago the memorable Battle of Manassas was fought.  One year 
    ago my company left Petersburg for Richmond.  We were marched through 
    Richmond about the time the battle was fought.  The troops which have for 
    several days been stationed here, consisting of General Ewell’s and Jackson’s 
    divisions, moved off in the direction of Madison Court House.  In the evening, 
    General Lawton’s brigade of Georgia troops arrived.
    July 22, 1862
    Ballantine and I went down to Richmond on business.  I found Captain 
    Andrews very low indeed.  The doctor had given up all hope of his recovery 
    and was only trying to keep him alive until his father could arrive.  Thomas 
    Summers and I are going to sit up with him tonight.  I also saw Captain J.G. 
    Knox who is getting well.
    Wednesday, July 23, 1862
    Last night, or rather, this morning, Captain Andrews died.  Summers and I 
    were the only ones with him at the time.  His death took place at 2:30 am.  
    He passed away without a struggle or a groan.  Thus we are deprived of our 
    brave and noble captain.  Oh, it was sad to see him thus snatched away in 
    the prime of life and with the future was opening with such bright promise 
    before him.  His was truly a Christian’s death.  He seemed perfectly conscious 
    to the last.  Peace to his ashes my noble and beloved captain.  I left on the 
    Central train at 6:30.  The train stopped at Anderson’s Crossing and considerable 
    excitement was gotten up by the report that Yankee were within a half mile of 
    the place.  However, we pushed on and got to Gordonsville a little before noon.  
    I found three letters and a “North Carolina Presbyterian” awaiting me.  The 
    letters were from Miss Mollie E. S-----, Aunt Ruth A. Chambers and cousin 
    Justina Chambers.  By the latter I learn that cousin P.B Chambers’ wound is 
    doing very well.
    Thursday, July 24, 1862
    We gathered up some guns for the hospitals today.  No train came up from 
    Richmond today owing to the proximity of the enemy to the road.  The train 
    from Staunton turned back at this point.  I have not felt very well today.
    Friday, July 25, 1862
    I have been unwell all day.  However, I managed to finish an obituary of Captain 
    John B. Andrews and wrote a letter to Aunt Ruth and cousin Justina.  The latter 
    I did not get mailed today.  The trains passed here according to their regular 
    schedule.  I, however, was glad that Major Boyle considered it unsafe for me to 
    make my trip to Richmond.  I got a “Watchman” and an “Express” today but 
    there was no home news in either.  Tonight one year ago the five companies of 
    our regiment and Reilly’s “Rowan” Artillery which had gone to Virginia in advance 
    of the remainder of our regiment, left Richmond for Manassas.  
    Saturday, July 26, 1862
    Today one year ago we remained all day on the cars at this place.  About sundown, 
    we started for Manassas.  I wrote a letter to Miss Mollie E. S----- and mailed it and 
    the one I wrote last night.  I received a letter from my friend and classmate Kiah H. 
    Sunday, July 27, 1862
    This day passed away with less than usual noise and confusion.  I was detailed to 
    take a couple of paroled Yankees to Richmond but not feeling much like going, Sgt.
    Lewis volunteered to go in my place.  I occupied myself in reading most of the day.
    Monday, July 28, 1862
    Today I was sent to Richmond with three Federal prisoners.  We had an 
    accident yesterday after leaving Gordonsville.  The axle of one of the cars broke 
    and tore the bottom out of it.  No one was hurt.  Sgt. Jones went with me to Louisa 
    Court House.  I slept in the N.C. Depot with Col. Chipley.  I visited Dr. M.T. Bell 
    at the medical college hospital and learned that A.S. Tomlin of my company had 
    died that evening.  
    Tuesday, July 29, 1862
    I got back from Richmond about 12:00 and found Jackson’s army on the move 
    going in the direction of Louisa Court House.  I saw Harrison Rickert who is in 
    the 34th Regiment N.C.T.  I wrote a short letter to my friend Kiah H. Sadler.
    Wednesday, July 30, 1862
    Wallace and Hanes went down to Richmond with Federal and Confederate 
    prisoners.  I also went down as a train guard.  We went to the regiment where I 
    saw Lt. Kerr and several of the company.  I saw Prof. L.(?) Henry Hill of Statesville.
    Thursday, July 31, 1862
    We got an early start from the regiment and got into the city in good time.  We 
    got to Gordonsville about 11:30.  I cast my first political vote today.  I voted for 
    William Johnston of Mecklenburg in opposition to Z.B. Vance.
    Friday, Aug. 1, 1862
    I went down to Richmond today.  Nothing of interest occurred.  I stopped in the 
    N.C. Depot.  I found my friend Captain John G. Knox of the 7th Regiment N.C.S.T. 
    awaiting me.  He arrived here last night about 2:30 am.  I spent the evening very 
    pleasantly with him.  Tonight we hear that a considerable cavalry fight took place 
    at Orange Court House in which ten Yankees were killed and five taken prisoner.  
    Six of seven of our men were wounded and about 17 taken prisoner.  These are 
    the first reports, however.
    Sunday, Aug. 3, 1862
    No further particulars from the fight at Orange Court House.  Today I went down to 
    Richmond.  Lt. Griffin of Captain Bunn’s company with two privates took down nine 
    prisoners—seven Yankees and two Confederate.  Just as we entered the city, a
     very hard shower of rain came down at least for some time.  I went to see many f
    riends and schoolmate Major Junius L. Hill who is now sick at a private residence on 
    Church Hill.  I found him quite feeble and very much emaciated.  Professor J. Henry 
    Hill is with him.
    The Landmark, November 12, 1923
     We started from Richmond at the usual time.  Nothing of interest occurred on 
    the way.  We arrived at Gordonsville at 11:30 and I found that my friend Lt. M.W. 
    Hill was awaiting my arrival.  Captain J.C. Knox came up this evening and remained
     for two or three hours.  I found awaiting me two letters from my respected Aunt Ruth 
    and the other from my cousin Mary R. Kimball.
    Tuesday, Aug. 5, 1862
    Tuesday the trains did not pass between here and Richmond in consequence of a 
    report that the enemy were within a few miles of Frederick Hall Station.  In the 
    evening, however, two trains with soldiers came through.  The passenger train 
    from Staunton came next and then returned.  Lt. M.W. Hill went to Richmond by 
    way of Lynchburg. Hanes went to Lynchburg today.  General T.J. Jackson passed 
    through here this evening.  His army soon commenced passing through and 
    continued marching until late at night.
    Wednesday, Aug. 6, 1862
    Today the train passed as usual.  Major Boyle, Litchfield and I went down to 
    Richmond.  When we passed Frederick’s Hall, a picket fight was gong on a mile 
    and a half up the road.  After we arrived in the city, we hared that the enemy had 
    taken possession of the road at the above station.
    Thursday, August 7, 1862
    No trains on the Central Road today in consequence we had to remain in the city.  
    Litchfield went out to the 3rd N.C.R.  I yesterday evening met with my old friend and 
    school mate Columbus Turner who had just gotten back from the north where he 
    had been a prisoner since the Battle of New Bern, N.C.  I got transportation for 
    Litchfield and myself this evening so that we could go to Gordonsville via Lynchburg 
    if there is no Central train.
    Friday, August 8, 1862
    Major Boyle thought we had better wait another day and see if there would not be 
    a train on the Central Road tomorrow.  Nothing of interest took place today.  I saw
     General J.E.B. Stuart, our dashing cavalry commander.  We heard of a Confederate 
    victory in the vicinity of Cumberland Gap and also of General J.C. Breckenridge’s 
    success in the neighborhood of Baton Rouge.  The glad tidings were tempered by 
    the intelligence that the great Confederate steam ram “Arkansas”, in endeavoring 
    to cooperate with General Breckenridge, in his attack on Baton Rouge, was 
    grounded and the Federal fleet assailing it and it was blown up to keep it from 
    falling into their hands.  We ascertained that no train will go to Gordonsville 
    tomorrow and have concluded to go via Lynchburg.  A nephew of Major Boyle has 
    just succeeded in getting over from Washington City and will go with us.  He is a 
    very sprightly looking youth and is, I judge, about fifteen years of age.  His name is 
    Ben(?) Jean Boyle.
    Saturday, August 9, 1862
    At 8:00 we started from Richmond by the Richmond and Danville Road on a very 
    long and crowded train.  So long and heavy was it that two engines were necessary 
    to pull it.  We rolled slowly down and some time before we got to Amelia Court House 
    one of the coaches got out of order and delayed us for some time.  We got to 
    Barkersville about an hour and a half behind time but found the South Side train for 
    Lynchburg was still waiting for us.  Getting on this, we went at a still slower speed 
    until near Lynchburg when the engine seemed to have gathered new strength 
    somehow or another.  We arrived at Lynchburg about 7:00.
    The scenery on the South Side Railroad just before we got to Lynchburg is 
    beautiful in the extreme.  First, we crossed the James river where to the right it 
    extends for some distance in a straight line.  The hills on both sides come down 
    to the very waters’ edge and mirror themselves in the clear stream.  For the whole 
    distance, then, we go along the banks of the river while the mountains hem us in 
    on the opposite side.  These are in some places covered with luxuriant corn where 
    one could hardly stand.  How they can cultivate these steep mountain sides I am 
    at a loss to understand.  The narrow bottoms, which lay along the river, are all well 
    cultivated and it seems as if this district alone could feed a whole army.  Oh!  For 
    the talent of a word painting.  Here grand old nature introduces man to some of 
    her beauties.  When looking on these noble old hills skirting the classic James 
    how can he have the impudence to think “I am Lord of creation”.  The city of 
    Lynchburg as you approach it in this direction presents a grand appearance, it is 
    situated on a bluff and has many beautiful public and private buildings.
    Sunday, August 10, 1862
    This morning a little before six we started on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad 
    for Charlottesville where we arrived in due time.  We found the Central train waiting 
    for us and not long before we were whirling along the banks of the Rivanna en route 
    for Gordonsville.  We arrived at the latter place a little after eleven.  After a 
    considerable fight took place about three miles west of Mitchell Station on the O. & 
    A. Railroad in which our men were victorious.  295 prisoners arrived here this evening 
    among whom was a brigadier general—Prince, a major and a considerable number of 
    foot commissioned officers.  Brigadier General C.S. (not J.H.) Winder on our side was 
    killed.  Have heard none of the particulars of the casualties but the loss on both sides 
    was, I understand, very heavy. Letters received from Miss M.E.S. and Mr. P.B.C.
    Monday, August 11, 1862
    Trains were coming in all day loaded with troops.  Longstreet’s division is 
    coming.  We have heard nothing today from the army beyond the Rapidan. 
    I wrote Miss Mollie E. S----- and Mrs. P.B. Chambers to answer those 
    received yesterday.
    Tuesday, August 12, 1862
    Grodonsville is full of bustle and confusion, all in consequence of the arrival of 
    the troops from Richmond and the sick and wounded from the Army on the 
    Rapidan.  I saw Major General Longstreet and Brigadier General Roger A. 
    Pryor today.  I received a letter from Miss Mary C. M----- this evening.  We 
    had quite a rain storm this evening, which made the air refreshing and deliciously 
    The Landmark, November 15, 1923
    Wednesday, Aug. 13, 1862
    Today we had to shoulder our guns and start the stragglers to their regiments. 
    Troops still continue to arrive as fast as the trains can bring them.  No fighting 
    has taken place between the contending forces since last Saturday.  I wrote 
    Miss Mary C. M----- in answer to the one I received last night.
    Thursday, Aug. 14, 1862
    Troops were arriving constantly on the cars.  Fraley and I were sent down to 
    Richmond with four prisoners—two Federal and two Confederate.  We arrived 
    about 11:00 and after getting clear of the prisoners we went to our regiment 
    where we arrived at 2:00.
    Friday, Aug. 15, 1862
    We left the regiment about 8:00 and came to the city.  We had to wait nearly 
    all day before any train started.  Fraley and Wallace, who had come down on a 
    train after we came, started on a train before I did and got to Gordonsville about 
    8:00.  I did not arrive until 11:00.  I came on a train with the 49th Virginia 
    Saturday, Aug. 16, 1862
    Troops were moving all day.  I served my first apprenticeship day in the passport 
    office. Major Boyle has detailed me as a clerk in that office.  I did as much writing 
    today as I ever did in one day before.  The army is all on the move going northward. 
     A great battle is imminent.
    Sunday, Aug. 17, 1862
    Busy all day in the passport office.  Got a letter from Aunt Ruth A. Chambers.
    Monday, Aug. 18, 1862
    Just as yesterday.  Wrote a letter to Aunt Ruth.
    Tuesday, Aug. 19, 1862
    I was as I have been the last four days, busy writing in the passport office.
    Wednesday, Aug. 20, 1862
    Having got on ahead in writing forms of passports and there being no regular 
    trains, we were not so busy today as we have been the past several days.
    Thursday, Aug. 21, 1862
    I was in the passport office all day.  The same monotonous round of duties takes 
    place each day almost without variation.  I was equally surprised and pleased 
    today to grasp the hand of my friend Lt. Willoughby F. Avery.  He formerly 
    belonged to Captain Waltons’ Cavalry Company but now has an appointment in 
    his brother’s (Col. C.M. Avery) regiment—33rd N.C.  Through him I first learned 
    that cousin Joseph F. Chambers and wife had been sorely afflicted in the loss 
    of their little son Frank.  This is the second son cousin Joe has lost since his 
    marriage.  He also informed me that cousin P.B. Chambers was recovering 
    from his wound and that his little son Lenoir was very sick.
    Friday, Aug. 22, 1862
    Several men from our regiment arrived here today.  They have been home in 
    consequence of wounds received in the Battle of Seven Pines.  They came here 
    thinking their regiment was here.  I received a letter from Kiah H. Sedler today.
    Saturday, Aug. 23, 1862
    Today, as heretofore, I spent in the passport office.  Nothing of special interest 
    occurred today.  We were busy all day.  I wrote a short epistle to my friend and 
    former classmate at college Kiah H. Sadler of South Carolina.
    Sunday, Aug. 24, 1862
    I spent the whole day in the passport office and was quite busy the greater part 
    of the time.  I read in my leisure moments Dr. Thornwell’s great fast day sermon.  
    I got a sweet letter from my sweet little correspondent Miss Mollie E. S-----.
    Monday, Aug. 25, 1862
    This day passed off pretty much as yesterday only we were a little more busy.  
    I commenced a letter to Miss M.E.S. in answer to the one received yesterday.  
    Tonight I heard the report that General Stuart, our cavalry commander, had 
    captured one hundred cars loaded with provisions.  I only HOPE this report is 
    true but I do not yet believe it.  General Stuart made a circuit, got in the rear 
    of the enemy and thus cut off several trains.
    Tuesday, Aug. 26, 1862
    Today we have been on the lookout for the 4th N.C.T. but only to be disappointed.  
    The troop trains did not arrive until after dark and then they brought the news that 
    our regiment was marching.  Brigadier General Walker’s brigade came up on the 
    cars.  I finished a letter I began yesterday to Miss Mollie E. S-----.  No news from 
    the army today.
    Wednesday, Aug. 27, 1862
    This morning, 343 Federal prisoners were brought here and delivered to Major 
    Boyle.  Last night General Walker’s brigade passed and I understand General 
    Ransom’s brigade is to pass tonight.  Nine more Yankees arrived tonight and 
    a rumor that our forces captured 2,500 prisoners, three pieces of cannon and 
    about 400 wagons is going around.  After that, we had captured the Dutch 
    Yankee General Blinker.  I do hope these reports prove to be true.
    The Landmark, November 22, 1923
    Thursday, Aug. 28, 1862
    In the office all day.  We were pretty busy.  Major Boyle went to Amherst 
    Court House to see his family.  About dark a train arrived from Lynchburg.  
    On it came about a half dozen of our (4th N.C.) regiment among whom were 
    George Andrews and J.C. Steele of my company.  They lodged with us.
    Friday, Aug. 29, 1862
    In the office all day.  Trains were passing nearly all day.
    Saturday, Aug. 30, 1862
    Yesterday evening I received a letter from Miss Mary C. Matheson which I 
    answered this morning.  We were busy in the office all day.  Fifty two Federal 
    prisoners arrived tonight from Culpepper Court House.  They were taken at and 
    about Warrenton.
    Sunday, Aug. 31, 1862
    Nothing of importance today.  I saw C.L. Turner today.  He was at a camp 
    near here.  I received a letter from Aunt Ruth A. Chambers today.
    Monday, Sept. 1, 1862
    Summer has ended and autumn has begun.  September has commenced in a 
    manner that seems determined to show its supremacy.  Fire is a comfort.  I 
    wrote a letter to Aunt Ruth A. Chambers. We hear news of a battle in the 
    village of Manassas in which our men though vastly outnumbered, gained a 
    complete victory.  General Ewell, Trimble and Talliaferro were wounded the first 
    severely and the other two slightly.  
    Tuesday, Sept. 2, 1862
    In the office all day.  I saw Brigadier General Talliaferro.  He was wounded in 
    the battle near Manassas.  We hear today that our forces under the matchless 
    Lee gained a glorious victory over the combined forces of McClellan and Pope.  
    The reports of yesterday are more than confirmed.
    Wednesday, Sept. 3, 1862
    We still hear rumors from the scene of the battle.  All are most favorable—in 
    fact, I fear to mush so.  Wounded men are beginning to come up and the 
    hospital is filled to overflowing. 
    Thursday, Sept. 4, 1862
    I have been quite unwell today.  Nothing of interest happened today.
    Friday, Sept. 5, 1862
    Nothing of interest until the last train from Orangeville arrived with 115 
    Yankee prisoners.  We moved our quarters this morning into the old carriage 
    shop on the street.  Unfortunately, the old shop is also acting as a guard 
    house for Federal prisoners.  Tonight we sleep amid the blue coated rascals.
    Saturday, Sept. 6, 1862
    This morning the Yankees were sent to Richmond, Va.  We were 
    uncommonly busy in the office today.
    Sunday, Sept. 7, 1862
    Busy all day in the office.  President Davis came up from Richmond and 
    immediately went on towards the army in a special train provided for him.  
    He is accompanied by ex-governor Lowe of Maryland.  Major Boyle went to 
    Amherst Court House on a visit to his family.
    Monday, Sept. 8, 1862
    President Davis returned to Richmond today.  About 120 Federal prisoners 
    arrived today and placed in the old carriage shop where we lodge, for safe 
    Tuesday, Sept. 9, 1862
    We hear the rumor today that General E. Kirby Smith has taken Cincinnati, 
    Ohio.  I hope for the best though I can hardly credit this report.  25 Yankees, 
    one woman, and a citizen prisoner arrived tonight.  I received a letter from my 
    friend Kiah H. Sedler of South Carolina.
    Wednesday, Sept. 10, 1862
    Got a letter from my friend M.E.S.  In the office all day alone.  Charley Jones 
    had to stay at the other office which Ballantine usually works in, he having 
    gone to Richmond.
    Thursday, Sept. 11, 1862
    Same as yesterday.  Nothing new.  Busy all day.  Sgt. Jones returned from 
    Richmond where he went yesterday with prisoners.  Wrote a letter to Kiah H. 
    Friday, Sept. 12, 1862
    Busy all day.  No news.  Got a letter from Aunt Ruth A. Chambers and answered 
    it.  Have been busy all day and it is raining now at 9:30 p.m.  Saw several 
    surgeon’s papers dated at Frederick, Maryland.  Our army of course.  Saw my 
    friend and former teacher W.R. Gaultney of North Carolina this evening.  He is on 
    the hunt of his brother who was lately exchanged.
    The Landmark, November 26, 1923
    Saturday, Sept. 13, 1862
    Nothing new from the army.  Got a letter from my friend Miss Mary C. M----- and 
    answered it.  Busy in the office all day.
    Sunday, Sept. 14, 1862
    Nothing of interest today.  No news from the army.  Mr. Gaultney and his brother 
    got off today.  J.W. Ballentine, Major’s other clerk, got back from Richmond today 
    and I hope I will be less busy now.
    Monday, Sept. 15, 1862
    Nothing new today.  We seem entirely cut off from the army.  Wrote to Miss M.E.S.
    Tuesday, Sept. 16, 1862
    It has been a tolerably busy day.  Hundreds of troops are passing on to their 
    command in Maryland.  Hundreds of sick and wounded are still arriving from 
    the scenes of the late bloody battles.  This morning the accommodation train 
    from Richmond left at 6:00 on its first trip.  In consequence of this arrangement, 
    we had to get up much earlier than usual and continue to have to do so as long 
    as the present schedule is complied with.  If early rising is healthy we will no doubt 
    be very healthy.  We heard by telegraph today that Stonewall Jackson had captured 
    8,000 Yankees at Harper’s Ferry.  Reports say that the prisoners are all on their 
    way to Staunton to be sent to Richmond and paroled—it not being expedient to 
    parole them at the place of their capture so that they would have to pass through 
    our lines to reach their homes.  Everything looks bright and cheering for our cause 
    right now.  Our arms are successful everywhere.  Let us be prepared for any reverses, 
    however, it is wise to be prepared for any emergency.
    Wednesday, Sept. 17, 1862
    I have no important news to report today.  The same dull duties.  It is really very 
    trying to be compelled to sit in the old dusty office all day, but it cannot be helped.  
    I wrote a letter to Captain P.B. Chambers this morning.  Major Boyle went to 
    Amherst today on a visit to his family.
    Thursday, Sept. 18, 1862
    Today we hear distressing reports from our army.  It is said by some that Major 
    General D.H. Hill has been whipped three times.  Others say that he was repulsed 
    three times but finally, being reinforced by General Longstreet, drove the enemy back.  
    General Garland’s remains passed here today.  He is said to have been killed in this 
    engagement.  There was also a vague rumor that General Longstreet had been taken 
    prisoner.  We wait with anxiety to hear the particulars.
    Friday, Sept. 19, 1862
    J.L. Wallace, of our guard, who has been home on a sick furlough, got back 
    today.  He brings no news from home.  We hear further rumors from our army 
    in Maryland.  D.H. Hill on Sunday has to fight with his division alone the whole 
    of McClellan’s army.  He held his ground, however, though vastly outnumbered, 
    until night.  During the night, Longstreet came to his aid and on Monday a 
    combined attack was made upon the enemy and a victory gained.  The Yankees 
    were driven back five miles.
    Saturday, Sept. 20, 1862
    This has been a wet, damp day.  We heard no further particulars from the late 
    battle except confirmation of Jackson’s capture of Harper’s ferry.  He is said to 
    have taken 10,000 prisoners, forty-three cannon and 15,000 small arms.  A man 
    from my company who was wounded in the late battles arrived here today.  He 
    is one of the recruits that came to the company after I had been taken from it, 
    consequently was a stranger to me.  His name is Beard.
    Sunday, Sept. 21, 1862
    This morning, Corp. James Holmes of my company (C), Bost of Company 
    A, and John Keistler of Company B in our regiment all wounded in one of the 
    late battles in Maryland (Sunday, Sept. 14), made their appearance.  They 
    got off for Richmond on the mail train.  We hear painful and uncertain rumors 
    from our army.  General Branch, of our state, has been killed.  General G.B. 
    Anderson of our brigade and former colonel of our regiment, has been wounded.  
    One report is that after several days hard fighting our men were compelled to 
    come on this side of the Potomac.  Another is that after several days of hard 
    fighting and great loss, we finally repulsed the enemy.  I fear, though against my 
    hopes, that we have met with a serious reversal. I got a letter from Aunt Ruth 
    Monday, Sept. 22, 1862
    This morning we saw two more wounded men from our regiment—one from 
    Company An and the other from Company H.  They got off today.  No further 
    news from the army.  I wrote to Aunt Ruth today.  Major Boyle went to 
    Amherst again today.
    Tuesday, Sept. 23, 1862
    1,001 rumors are afloat concerning the late contests in Maryland.  Nothing has yet 
    transpired.  We are wholly in the dark.  Sgt. Jones went to Culpepper Ct. House to 
    make arrangements for moving some sick and wounded Yankee prisoners to 
    Richmond tomorrow.
    Wednesday, Sept. 24, 1862
    News from the army is very meager.  I saw Captain Moore of the 49th Regiment this 
    morning.  He is slightly wounded and got off for Richmond.  Major Boyle got back today.  
    A lot of Yankee prisoners have been at Culpepper Court House for some time.  They 
    are sick and wounded.
    The Landmark, December 3, 1923
    Thursday, Sept. 25, 1862
    This has been a quite cold day.  Fire would have been comfortable in the shade 
    all day.  We have no further news from the army.  The Yankees got off this 
    morning for Richmond at 8:00.  Got a letter from Miss Mollie E. S-----.
    Friday, Sept. 26, 1862
    Nothing of interest occurred today.  Brigadier General Anderson of our brigade 
    passed today going to Raleigh.  He was wounded in the foot in one of the recent 
    fights in Maryland.
    Saturday, Sept. 27, 1862
    Another week is gone with its shortcomings.  We heard nothing from the army.  I 
    finished today a letter I started yesterday to Miss Mollie E. S-----.  I have felt quite 
    badly today.  I fear I will have a spell of sickness.
    Sunday, Sept. 28, 1862
    Nothing new from the army today.  It is reported that the enemy are advancing 
    to the Orange & Alexandria Railroad again.  General Sigel with his whole division 
    is said to be between Manassas and Warrenton Junction. We know of no 
    movement on our side against him.  I received a letter from Miss Mary C. M-----.
    Monday, Sept. 29, 1862
    Everything concerning our army is at a standstill.  No news not even a rumor.  
    Major Boyle, who went to Amherst Court House today, to visit his family, 
    returned today.  Abraham Lincoln’s proclamation freeing the salves in the 
    rebellious states after the 1st January, 1863, is in the papers.
    Tuesday, Sept. 30, 1862
    Busy writing forms all day.  No news from the army today.  Captain Kelly of 
    Company G or our regiment arrived here from home today on his way to the 
    regiment.  He has been home on a sick furlough.  Thus ends September, the 
    nine months of the year.  Three quarters of 1862 is gone.  A little more than 
    two years ago I left Taylorsville, N.C., where I spent a very happy time, perhaps 
    the happiest of my life, for Davidson College.  Then I had not the remotest idea 
    of a devastating war such as we are not engaged in.
    Wednesday, October 1, 1862
    “The melancholy days are come, the saddest of the year”.  Nothing of particular 
    interest occurred today.  Tonight five of the captured Yankees arrived here about 
    8:00.  The bridge over the Rappahannock was completed this morning.  With 
    some other repairs, the engines will be as good as new soon.  One of them, the 
    “Hero” is now in excellent running condition.  Two more, one of which is in running 
    order, are still to come.
    Thursday, October 2, 1862
    I have been quite sick all day, almost unable to attend to the duties of my 
    position.  I applied to the doctor this morning and he gave me laudanum and 
    some pills.  It is said the enemy are advancing on Culpepper Court House.  
    In what force is not stated.  We have but a small force with which to meet them.
    Friday, October 3, 1862
    I have felt unwell again today but am better than yesterday.
    Sunday, October 5, 1862
    Twenty of the 2nd N.C. Cavalry got here this evening.  They are here for service 
    under Major Boyle. Among them was Henry B. Knox, a near neighbor of mine 
    and his brother my friend Captain J.G. Knox of the 7th N.C.  I went to church 
    and heard a very good sermon from Rev. Thomas, a Baptist minister from 
    Warrenton.  His text was a clause in the 7th and 8th verses of the 3rd chapter 
    of Hebrews.
    Monday, Oct. 6, 1862
    Pinck White went down to Culpepper Court House today.  I got a letter from 
    Captain P.B. Chambers today.  His wound has broken out anew and will in all 
    probability not be well until the end of the month.  No news from the army today.
    Tuesday, October 7, 1862
    The same old routine of daily duties.  Charles R. Jones, my fellow clerk, 
    received an order to report to the 55th N.C.R. as 2nd Lieutenant of Company 
    F of that regiment.  He intends to start on the 6:00 train.  I am sorry to have 
    to part with Charley as I was very much attached to him.
    Wednesday, October 8, 1862
    Charles Jones went to Richmond on the 6:00 train this morning. Samuel J. 
    Litchfield takes his place.  He is from my regiment and like myself has been 
    on provost.  We hear reports that a large body of Yankees are advancing in 
    this direction from Alexandria.  Wrote to Captain P.B. Chambers today.
    The Landmark, December 10, 1923
    Friday, October 25, 1862
    Just as yesterday.  No news from the army.
    Sunday, Oct. 26, 1862
    Rain! Rain! Rain!  All day long.  Mr. J.C. Turner, chief engineer and 
    superintendent of the Western North Carolina Railroad, passed today on his 
    way to and from a visit to the army.  I got a letter from Miss Mollie E. S-----.
    Monday, Oct. 27, 1862
    Nothing of interest today. I has been pretty cold all day. No news from Lee, 
    Bragg, or Beauregard.  The 59th Georgia Regiment came here tonight from 
    the vicinity of the Rappahannock where they have been for about two weeks.  
    They are en route to Richmond. Got a letter today from Aunt Ruth A. Chambers.
    Tuesday, Oct. 28, 1862
    Nothing of special importance occurred in the “city” of Gordonsville today.  
    Still no news from the army.
    Wednesday, Oct. 29, 1862
    “All quiet” at Gordonsville and for all we know, “all quiet on the Potomac”.  
    This morning or rather “Jack Frost” paid us another visit.
    Thursday, Oct. 30, 1862
    No news.  I finished a letter to Miss Mollie E. S----- this morning.  Tonight I, 
    for the first  time, saw the noble leader of our Army of Northern Virginia, Robert 
    E. Lee.  He came up from Culpepper after dark and went on to Richmond.  H is 
    much younger looking than I expected to see him.  He is a little above medium 
    height and has a large head which is thinly covered with white hair.  He is nearly 
    bald and his face is covered with a white beard.  Sgt., or rather Lt. Jones who 
    has been home for the past 15 days, got back last night on the accommodation 
    train.  Lt. Kelly of Company G in our regiment came with Sgt. Jones.
    Friday, Oct. 31, 1862
    Nothing much occurred today.  It has been a warm and pleasant day.
    Saturday, November 1, 1862
    This is the first day of November.  It has been a warm and beautiful day.  No 
    news.  A rumor has for some days been prevalent that Longstreet’s Corps was 
    moving out today and is confirmed by sufficient evidence.
    Sunday, Nov. 2, 1862
    This has been a lovely day—almost like summer.  Were it not for the “sere and 
    yellow leaf” one could easily believe it June instead of chilly November.  No news 
    today.  About 100 Federal prisoners, citizens, railroad hands and soldiers – came 
    up last night from Culpepper Court House.  They will go to Richmond tomorrow 
    Monday, November 3, 1862
    General Toombs and Col. G.T. Anderson arrived here this evening.  No news 
    today from the army.  Been writing all day.
    Tuesday, Nov. 4, 1862
    A.M. Walker of the (illegible number) Regiment arrived from Statesville where 
    he has been on furlough to recover from his wound which he received below 
    Richmond last summer.  Some sixty prisoners were brought from Culpepper 
    today to go to Richmond tomorrow morning.  We hear rumors that Jackson 
    and one of the Hills have been engaged with the enemy the last two days.  
    At night the painful rumor was that Jackson had been killed.  I hope this will 
    prove false.
    Wednesday, Nov. 5, 1862
    Today General Lee returned from Richmond and went towards the army.  No 
    further news from the reported battle in northern Virginia.  Nothing further 
    concerning General Jackson.  We have been exceedingly busy in the office 
    today—the crowd larger than it has been since I have been in that office.  It 
    rained today and was tolerably cold also.
    The Landmark, December 14, 1923
    Thursday, Nov. 6, 1862
    Nothing new, no news.  It has been cold today and the nearer night the colder 
    it has become.  A great many stragglers were sent on to Culpepper Court House. 
    Friday, Nov. 7, 1862
    This morning at 9:00 it commenced to snow.  The fine flakes continued nearly 
    all day.  This is the first fall of snow for us for the year.  Oh!  I do pity my poor 
    tent-less and half naked fellow soldiers such weather as this!  I saw some the 
    other days who were barefoot.
    Saturday, Nov. 8, 1862
    Today although mostly clear it was, like last night, very cold.  Last night 
    Brigadier General Evans’ brigade passed here on its way to Richmond and 
    today the 57th and 54th N.C.  Colonels Godwin and McDowell passed going in 
    the opposite direction towards Culpepper.  No news today.
    Sunday, Nov. 9, 1862
    Today my cousin, Capt. P.B. Chambers passed here on his way to join his 
    regiment.  He was wounded in the Battle of Malvern Hill in front of Richmond last 
    summer and has just recovered sufficiently for service.  He brought no news of 
    much from home.  I received a letter from  Aunt Ruth A Chambers by him.  Lt. 
    Kerr of my company who was home on sick leave, sent my him the remainder 
    of my State bounty money, $35.  I was greatly delighted to see my cousin for 
    it has been 17 months since I have seen him.  He had no time to tarry, however, 
    and went on to Culpepper Court House.  I was chagrined this morning to find 
    that some straggling soldiers had burned up a load of wood the Quartermaster 
    had sent me yesterday evening.  They were liberal enough to leave me the stick.  
    Had they been other than stragglers we would not have cared for much.
    Monday, Nov. 10, 1862
    Nothing new today.  Busy in my office.  Got a letter from Miss Mollie E. S-----.  
    Not so cold today.
    Tuesday, Nov. 11, 1862
    Still no news, hardly a rumor even.  North, south, east, west barren of anything 
    exciting.  J.W. Ballantine, one of Major Boyle’s clerks who went down last week 
    with some prisoners to Richmond, returned today.
    Wednesday, Nov. 12, 1862
    Nothing new today.  Plenty of straggling soldiers and plenty of work in the office.  
    Warm and somewhat cloudy all day.  Wrote a letter to Miss Mollie E. S-----.  
    Answered to the one I received on the 10th inst.
    Thursday, Nov. 15, 1862
    I have been busy in the office all day.  The trains passed as usual and brought no 
    news.  I got a letter from my cousin, Captain, or rather Major P.B. Chambers, 
    informing me that in all probability I would soon receive the appointment to first 
    lieutenant in his old Company C, 49th Regiment.  This letter I answered by the same 
    conveyance that brought it.  Major Boyle has promised to let me go to Richmond 
    tomorrow which will be quite a new thing for me, having been to the office for so long.
    Friday, Nov. 11, 1862
    This morning bright and early I was up and ready for my trip.  I got the prisoners, 
    was on the train and off for Richmond by 6:00 am.  We arrived in the city at 11:00 
    and I delivered my eleven Yankees to Libby prison and was quite relieved.  I then 
    went to work to transact my business and by night had made arrangements to get 
    passes printed, got my pass, got shampooed and trimmed and had my ambrotype 
    taken – one for Aunt Ruth Chambers, one for Mary Kimball and one for -----------!!!  
    I bought all the articles I wished.  I ate super with that very kind lady, Mrs. Moseby 
    at the corner of 9th and Franklin Streets and engaged lodging and breakfast at the 
    “Exchange” for which I paid in advance for the neat sum of $3.00.  I retired to my 
    room quite early.
    Saturday, Nov. 15, 1862
    This morning began in a dark part of the building.  I did not get up until 8:00, not 
    knowing it as so late.  After eating breakfast I completed the little business still 
    undone and long before time for the train to leave was ready to start for Gordonsville.  
    We got off at 2:15 and arrived at Gordonsville about 7:30 all safe and sound.
    Sunday, Nov. 16, 1862
    In the office again—nothing of interest until train time when it was ascertained 
    that the train for Richmond would be delayed for several hours at Louisa Court 
    House in consequence of the engine giving out.  An engine was sent down from 
    here and several hours later the train arrived and passed on towards Staunton.  
    This evening Major Boyle received a conditional order from General Lee for the 
    release of all his guards that belonged to the 4th N.C. Regiment.  Major Boyle 
    decides that he can spare none but S.J. Litchfield my present assistant in the 
    passport office.  He sends him in consequence of his writing to the Secretary of 
    War to get an order for his release after Major Boyle talked to him and arranged 
    the matter.  A man by the name of Fox from Bunn’s Company will take his place 
    until further arrangements can be made.
    Monday, Nov. 17, 1862
    Litchfield left today; Levins went to Staunton with the prisoners.  McClellen’s 
    supercedure was confirmed.  Burnside will take is place for the present.  It is 
    reported that General Ewell passed here yesterday, going towards Richmond to 
    have another operation performed on his leg.  Wrote to Aunt Ruth, Lt. C.R. Jones, 
    Nat Raymer and Cal Chipley.
    Tuesday, Nov. 18, 1862
    Sent off two of my ambrotypes—one to my Aunt Ruth Chambers and one to my 
    cousin Mary Kimball.  Wrote them a letter today.  No news.  Busy in the office 
    all day.
    Wednesday, Nov. 19, 1862
    This has been a damp, cloudy day—the mud rendering it very disagreeable and 
    pedestrian.  We had considerable trouble to get things arranged to carry out General 
    Lee’s order receive yesterday evening. In pursuance of these orders Lt. Jones and 
    three men from Bunn’s company went to Lynchburg on police duty on the cars today.
    Tuesday, Nov. 11, 1862
    This has been a troublesome day in the office.  Hundreds of soldiers are here today 
    who do not know where to go.  We do not know where to send them.  The army or 
    at least part of it, is moving, but how far or where we do not know.  Besides this, a 
    disagreeable day, rain, rain, rain, mud, mud, mud.  Man and beast continue to make
     the roads and streets more muddy by continuous travel about this little, insignificant, 
    though extensively busy, village.  No news.
    Friday, Nov. 21, 1862
    This morning I paid the neat little sum of $12 for an ordinary pair of shoes made to 
    order.  The mud seems to be getting deeper and deeper.  It has not rained of any 
    consequence today.  I got a letter from a member of the 17th Virginia Regiment, 
    Charles S. Haislip—with whom I had some acquaintance, though I did not know his
    name.  He gave me some information concerning some acquaintances near Bristoe
    [NOTE:  The Misses Graham]
    We commenced today to use the passes that I had printed when I went to Richmond. 
    No reliable news from our army.  Fredericksburg seems to be the point of interest now.
    Saturday, November 22, 1862
    It has cleared somewhat today.  Sgt. Lewis went to Richmond with prisoners this 
    morning.  I got letters from Kiah H. Sadler and Miss Mollie E. S----- today which 
    letter I answered tonight.  According to instructions by telegraph from department 
    headquarters, Major Boyle forwarded the troops that have been collected here for 
    several days to Orange Court House, thence to proceed in the direction of 
    Fredericksburg on the plank road.  Brigadier Generals Pryor and Corse were here 
    today—Sgt. Gauger of the 19th N.C. called to see us.
    Sunday, Nov. 23, 1862
    This has been a beautiful day and the mud is fast drying up.  We have no news 
    from any quarter today.
    Tuesday, Nov. 25, 1862
    Another cold, frosty morning but not quite as cold as yesterday.  R. Leinster who went 
    for  along time on the provost guard, arrived here today. He came on ahead of the
     regiment which he left beyond Madison(?) Court House on his way here.  Later this 
    evening Lt. Hofflin of Company K, now acting commissary for our regiment, came in.  
    He says the regiment would camp, or had camped, I did not understand which, within 
    four miles of this place.  There is no doubt, then, that D.H. Hill is coming this way.  
    Fredericksburg has not been shelled at last account.
    Wednesday, Nov. 26, 1862
    Several officers from our regiment who have been in town today—Lts. Hofflin, Andrews 
    and Thomson, Surgeon Bryan, Dr. Finley(?), Quartermaster Sgt. E.I. Morrison, and 
    later in the evening Lt. Forcum.  This morning we had to move out of the carriage house 
    where we have been for some time having had our quarters—it having been rented out 
    by its owner. Both messes of the guard have united and gone into a tent.  I have not 
    been able to learn any news today.  
    Thursday, Nov. 27, 1862
    No news of any kind today.  Several officers from our (4th N.C.S.T.) regiment were 
    in town today among whom was Lt. C.S. Alexander, of my company (C) who has 
    for some time been acting as quartermaster for the regiment.  I wrote a letter to Kiah 
    H. Sadler and received one from Aunt Ruth A. Chambers, acknowledging the receipt 
    of the ambrotype.  The day has been clear though cold.  Tonight the moon shines 
    Friday, Nov. 28, 1862
    This morning early Major General D.H. Hill’s division commenced its march towards 
    Orange Court House.  It is supposed that Lt. General Jackson’s whole corps was 
    on the move today.  No one knows where this corps is gone; though it is generally 
    thought to be Fredericksburg.  Nothing else of interest today.
    Saturday, Nov. 29, 1862
    86 Federal prisoners arrived on the Culpepper train today among whom are several 
    commissioned officers.  They will be sent to Richmond at the first opportunity.  No 
    news from any point today.
    Sunday, Nov. 30, 1862
    This morning was quite cold, a heavy frost having fallen in the night.  The Yankee 
    prisoners that arrived here yesterday went to Richmond today on the mail train.  
    Some sixty or seventy more arrived today and will probably go down tomorrow.
    Monday, Dec. 1, 1862
    This is the first day of December and has been milder.  The Yankee prisoners that 
    came here yesterday went to Richmond this morning on the train.  No news.
    Tuesday, Dec. 2, 1862
    This morning was again quite cold.  The papers seem perfectly barren of news lately.  
    We have heard nothing from any of the points of interest today.  I received a letter 
    from Miss Mary C. M----- today.  It was dated October 29.  It has been all that 
    time on its way—a distance of about 300 miles.
    Wednesday, Dec. 3, 1862
    Nothing of interest to put in the pages of my journal today.  Military matters seem 
    to be at a perfect standstill.  Our cook Davie Bennett—a free man—came today 
    and got dinner for us.  I hope he will suit us for I hate to cook.  I forgot to mention 
    yesterday that I was vaccinated by Dr. Wilson of the hospital.
    Thursday, Dec. 4, 1862
    Nothing of consequence to record today.
    Friday, Dec. 5, 1862
    Lt. Jones went to Richmond with the prisoners arrested yesterday.  It commenced 
    to snow early in the morning and continued to fall lightly all day leaving the ground 
    covered about an inch deep.  Corp. Holmes and Private Cook of my company, 
    stayed in the office with us tonight.  I got another letter from Miss Mary C. Matheson.  
    Wrote to Aunt Ruth Chambers and Miss M.
    Saturday, Dec. 6, 1862
    This morning was clear and very cold and so remained all day.  I received an 
    official letter today from Col. Lee M. McAffee notifying me of my appointment 
    as Captain of Company c, 49th Regiment, N.C.T.  I shall leave for my new 
    post of duty on Monday next.  I now stand in my cousin P.B. Chamber’s place 
    as he is now Major of the regiment and I captain of his old company.  This is 
    higher than I expected to or wished at present to attain.  May I prove worthy of 
    the trust thus reposed in me.  Tonight I wrote my correspondent Kiah H. Sadler
    and Miss Mollie E. S----- and Miss Mary C. M----- and Aunt Ruth A Chambers to 
    notify them of the circumstance and request them to not write to me at this place.  
    I also answered Col. McAffee’s letter accepting the position but never sent the 
    Sunday, December 7, 1862
    Nothing of interest today.  Extremely cold all day.  No news from the army.
    Monday, Dec. 8, 1862
    I was busy all morning preparing to leave.  I hated very much to leave my 
    comfortable quarters.  At any rate, I got ready by the time the cars came 
    and on board I got amidst a perfect hurricane of best wishes from my friends.  
    Nothing of interest occurred on the way to Richmond at which place we 
    arrived about 6:30.
    Tuesday, Dec. 9, 1862
    I have been busy all day and just got through.  I have purchased some articles 
    and sent $20 to Fraley by Conductor Richardson on the Virginia Railroad.  It 
    is to pay for footing my boots.  I wrote letters to my mother, Lt. C.R. Jones 
    and Miss Mollie E. S----- and to Captain J.C. Knox.
    Wednesday, Dec. 10, 1862
    I started from Richmond to Fredericksburg at 6:00 am and after various 
    delays arrived at the camp of the 49th N.C.T. about 7:00 pm.  I met with 
    my cousin Major P.B. Chambers, my friend and classmate Captain E. 
    Payson George, commissary of the 49th.  On my way to meet with George 
    Phifer, another college friend, who is sergeant major of this regiment, an
     incident on the railroad at Guinea Station caused a delay of several hours.  
    Mr. Woods accompanied me and guided me safely to camp.
    Thursday, Dec. 11, 1862
    I slept with Captain George.  Before daylight the signal guns were fired 
    and the long bell sounded.  All was bustle and excitement in camp.  
    Col. McAffee had agreed to excuse me from duty until Sunday morning 
    and we remained in camp. Now, however, he at once suggested that I at 
    once assume command of my company, which I did.  Soon we were off on 
    our way towards Fredericksburg.
    The Landmark, December 12, 1863
    Friday, Dec. 12, 1862
    Spent an uncomfortable night.  At 9:30 this morning, the cannonading 
    commenced.  We moved to a position on the left of the plank road.  Here 
    we remained all day, the shells flying over and near us.  There were frequent 
    intermissions in the firing.  Several shells from one of our own batteries in 
    the rear came near falling in our regiment.  One piece of shell came very 
    near hitting Lt. Linebarger of Company H.  The firing gradually ceased towards 
    night and we bivouacked in our position.
    Saturday, Dec. 13, 1862
    At 9:30 am picket firing commenced and cannonading also, far away on 
    our right.  Cannonading over us commenced at 12:00, shells frequently 
    falling near us and bursting.  Soon we were ordered forward.  We marched 
    in line of battle about a mile, shells and rifle balls falling all around us.  One 
    shell fell in the regiment, wounding several, as we marched across the field.  
    We took position behind a hill on top of which was a redoubt with one gun.  
    This was just on the left of the plank road as it enters town.  Here we lay all 
    day, the shells and rifle balls passing over us in showers.  A ball struck me 
    in the left side as I was stepping out in the rear of the regiment, hitting some 
    maps in my breast pocket and glancing.  It then passed through the sleeves 
    of my coat and shirt but nowhere struck my flesh.  Here we had one killed 
    and six wounded or rather that is, the loss of the regiment during the day.  
    The hard fighting of that day had taken place some distance to our right in 
    front of a large brick building.  In the rear of this house, we were ordered about 
    sunset.  In reaching this position we had to pass through an open field 
    completely raked by both the cannon and small arms of the years.  Strange to
    say, no one in the regiment was even struck.  We gained our position in a garden 
    in the rear of the house alluded to above and by lying low, avoided the cannon and 
    musket balls that flew over us both thick and fast.  
    About 8:00 we silently left this position after having receiving our rations. 
    We marched through the dark about a half mile to the right, halted, stood 
    for a long time and were ordered back to our last night’s encampment. 
    Before we left this position, our orders were countermanded and we were 
    marched back to our position in rear of the redoubt on the left of the plant 
    road, our first position today.  Here we had to lay down in the mud, ready to 
    move at a moment’s notice. Cold and cheerless, Lt. Krider, Sgt. Barger(?) 
    and myself lay down together and slept as best as we could.  No man in my 
    company was hurt.  Thank God my friends, my company and myself are safe!.
    Sunday, December 14, 1862
    In the night, we received enough of cartridges to increase the number of each 
    man to eighty rounds.  Early in the morning we were ready to move but moved 
    only a few feet. We lay down on our arms, the 16th Mississippi a few paces in 
    our front.  Soon the shells began to fly over us and some among us.  One man 
    in Captain Black’s company was wounded.  We lay here until 10:30 pm when 
    we were ordered down on the most advanced line on the edge of town.  Here 
    the number of rounds of ammunition to each man was increased to one hundred.  
    Pickets were thrown out in front and most of the men lay down to take some rest. 
    About 2:30 the enemy pickets fired upon ours; ours fired in return and ran in.  
    The firing of the pickets startled the men and some one curried out that the 
    enemy were advancing and called on the men to fire.  Such a roar of musketry was 
    seldom ever heard from our regiment.  One of our pickets was wounded by our own 
    men as he ran in.  Shortly afterwards we were relieved and after marching until 
    daylight were placed in some rifle pits at the foot of a hill about a mile from the city.  
    The 36th N.C. Regiment was thrown out in front as skirmishers.
    The Landmark, Jan. 7, 1924
     Monday, December 15, 1862
    We remained all day in the trenches.  I slept the greater part of the day—
    making up for last night.  I wrote a letter to cousin Justina (Major P.B.Chambers’ 
    wife).  Nothing of interest occurred during the night.  We bivouacked in the trenches
     for the night.
    Tuesday, December 16, 1862
    This morning we were awakened by a cold rain that wet and chilled us.  Soon 
    after the sun came up we were marched into the hills in front of which we had 
    previously been.  After remaining here for some time, General Ransom 
    announced to us that the enemy had evacuated Fredericksburg and also ordered 
    us back to camp.  We immediately and joyfully took our way to the rear.  We 
    arrived at our camp about 1:00 pm.  Soon we went to work to render ourselves 
    as comfortable as circumstances would permit.  I wrote to Jacob Fraley.
    Wednesday, Dec. 17, 1862
    We remained in camp all day.  Nothing new took place.  We are living some 
    better than we did on the last expedition; the men busied themselves in 
    writing letters, etc.  Arrangements were made this evening by which the 
    whole regiment will be armed with rifles.
    Thursday, Dec. 18, 1862
    Last night was probably one of the coldest, if not the coldest, night we have had 
    this winter. This morning all the commanding officers of the brigade were requested 
    to assemble at General Ransom’s headquarters at 9:00.  The general made a few 
    remarks, departing the destitute condition of the many citizens of the city of 
    Fredericksburg and appealing to our sympathy on their behalf.  He proposed
    that each officer should give to their cause one third of a month’s wages.  He 
    intended to do this himself and more if necessary.  After coming back from General 
    Ransom’s headquarters, the regiment was marched out and fired off the guns.  
    P.A. White and J. Lentz of the 48th Regiment visited us today.  I learned with 
    sorrow that Stokes Brem was badly wounded.
    Friday, Dec. 19, 1862
    This morning, signal guns were fired and the regiment formed in line of battle—
    ready for a march.  However, before we left the regimental ground, it was found 
    out that the alarm was false.  We were dismissed.  Soon after orders were sent 
    around announcing that division review would take place at 2:30.  This took place 
    at the appointed hour and we were reviewed by General Ransom.
    Saturday, Dec. 20, 1862
    Nothing of interest took place today.  I have subscribed to the Richmond “Daily 
    Dispatch” for one month.  Tonight I got a letter from Sgt. Ab. A. Anderson and 
    another from my friend Kiah H. Sadler.  A cold, raw day.
    Sunday, Dec. 21, 1862
    Nothing of particular interest occurred until 2:00 when there was a company 
    inspection.  No news from any quarter.
    Monday, Dec. 22, 1862
    Dress parade in the morning.  Dress parade and battalion drill in the evening.  Henry 
    Burke Knox visited us tonight and remains with us.
    Tuesday, Dec. 23, 1862
    I have been quite unwell today, so much of the day I was excused from active duty.  
    I lay in my bivouac all day into the evening.  I was detailed for officer of the guard.
    Wednesday, Dec. 24, 1862
    Nothing of particular interest until late in the evening when I was surprised to see 
    cousin Joseph F. Chambers come walking into camp.  He had heard nothing of 
    Major Chambers or myself and had come to see us.
    Thursday, Dec. 25, 1862
    Christmas Day.  What a crowd of bygone associations come upon the mine upon 
    this almost universal holiday.  It seems to be a milepost to mark the intervals as I 
    travel back to the days of infancy.  Christmas Day in camp was, for a holiday day, 
    an extraordinarily dull day.  It reminded me of a quiet Sunday.  Our commanders 
    were kind enough to dispense with all but the necessary duties today.  It was a 
    warm and beautiful day.  Nature seemed to smile upon this war afflicted land of ours.  
    I wrote a letter to Aunt Ruth A. Chambers and to Miss Mollie E. S-----.  I sent six 
    final statements to Adjutant and Inspector General’s Office.
    Friday, Dec. 26, 1862
    Company drill at 9:00; battalion drill at 2:00.  I exercised with my company in the 
    skirmish drill this morning.  No letters or papers for our regiment today.  No news 
    from any quarter.
    Saturday, Dec. 27, 1862
    Dress parade at 9:00.  No drill—time to prepare for the grand review.  A little before 
    3:00 pm we were marched out to the drill field and took our position with the remainder 
    of Ransom’s for the review.  Soon General Robert E. Lee, the commanding general 
    himself appeared and honored us with a review.  As he rode along in front of our lines 
    regiment after regiment made the air resound with cheers for the noble Confederate 
    chief.  We passed twice in review one in quick time and one in double quick time.  
    Tonight I got a letter from my friend Jacob L. Fraley.  He, with the remainder of the 
    provost guard, is still at Gordonsville.  All were well.  Judging from today’s paper, 
    things are brightening up for the Confederacy.
    Sunday, Dec. 28, 1862
    We had a regimental inspection which took up a greater part of the evening.  Nothing 
    else of interest occurred during the day.
    The Landmark, January 21, 1924
     December 29, 1862
    Got ready to march at 1:00 in the morning.  Wrote a letter to J.L. Fraley.
    December 30, 1862
    We did not move.  Instead of moving, we sent a large work party to Fredericksburg.
    December 31, 1862
    Another year is gone.  I ought to be devoutly thankful to God for His many and undeserved 
    mercies.  While many of my companions who were living at the close of last year new 
    sleep in their graves, I have been spared.  Instead of becoming better and endeavoring to 
    serve God, I have become worse to have not ceased to transgress His Holy Law.  May I 
    be forgiven for these many and grievous sins; have my heart renewed and become a 
    humble follower of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.
    Part 2
    In Their Own Words
    Confederate War Diary
    Captain Henry Chambers
    Transcriber’s Note:  Gaps below may be caused by the paper being so faded it could not be 
    read.  Also certain entries for certain dates may be incomplete because of fading.
    The Landmark, January 21, 1924
    Thursday, Jan. 1, 1863
    In looking over the preceding pages, I have great reason to congratulate myself on my good 
    fortune.  During the last year the regiment to which I belonged (4th N.C.) underwent the long 
    march from Manassas to Yorktown; the retreat from the Peninsula; the series of battles 
    below Richmond; the long, hard march from that place to Maryland; the hard fought battles 
    on the way and in that state; the march from Winchester to Fredericksburg, while I have 
    been spared from all these hardships and dangers.  I have been on a detail that in a large 
    measure kept me out of the fray.  My companions have fallen in battle, died in hospitals, 
    been sick and suffered yet I have been saved.  How thankful then should I be to the Great 
    Dispenser of these events.  May these thanks be so impressed upon my mind that my 
    conduct be greatly improved.  To this end my prayer ascends.
    Sgt. Thompson and I were busy all day, making out the company muster roll for 
    November and December. I got a letter from my wounded friend Capt. J.C. Know 
    of the 7th N.C.S.T.  He is in a hospital in Richmond.  It has been a beautiful day, 
    bright and lovely.  May it be a good omen a symbol of the coming year.
    Jan. 2, 1863
    Clear and cold.  Company drill this morning—skirmish drill—with my company.  
    Ordered to be ready to march at 4:00 a.m. tomorrow.  Subscribed for the “Watchman”.
    Jan. 3, 1863
    Arose at 3:30, prepared to march.  On our way by daylight.  Took the Telegraph 
    Road towards Richmond and passed the place lately cleared for a new camp.  
    Marched at a tolerable fast gait until 3:00 p.m. when we halted for the night.
    Jan. 4, 1863
    Reveille at 4:00 a.m.—commenced march at 6:00.  Followed the Telegraph Road; 
    arrived at Hanover Junction at 2:00 where we camped for the night.  I, as well as 
    my men, are very tired and foot sore.  Wrote a letter to Jacob Fraley enclosing $10 
    which he had advanced me at Gordonsville.
    Jan. 5, 1863
    Reveille at 4:00 a.m.  On our way by daylight; still “on to Richmond”.  Very low, 
    interesting country.  I suffered very much with my feet today.  Halted and camped 
    at 1:30 p.m.
    Jan. 6, 1863
    Reveille as usual at 4:00 a.m.  Passed Richmond at 11:00 a.m.  Halted a few 
    miles from Drewry’s Bluff.
    Jan. 7, 1863
    Halted and camped near a factory at 2:30 p.m. near Petersburg.
    Jan. 8, 1863
    Remained in camp.  Remodeled the messes.  Lts. Bowers, Krider, Sgt. Burger, 
    Private Ray and I appropriated one  fly (tent).  Private Joseph Graham went to the 
    hospital yesterday.
    Jan. 8, 1863
    Last night it snowed covering the ground about one half inch.  We remained in 
    camp all day and nothing of interest occurred.  I wrote a letter to my friend John 
    Knox of the 7th N.C.S.T. who is now wounded in the Medical College Hospital in 
    Richmond. Sgt. Robinson was sent to the hospital today.
    Jan. 10, 1863
    This morning I got permission to visit the city of Petersburg and about 8:00 Sgt. 
    Stone, Tom Ray (who had also gotten permission) and I started.  It soon began 
    to rain and we had a rather gloomy time in the city.  I did not get to see many of 
    it sights in consequence.  My friend Lt. Charles R. Jones, Assistant Provost 
    Marshall who I wished to see, was confined by the smallpox.  I did not and indeed 
    could not see him.  I bough a cap, Rank’s Letters of the Popes in three volumes, 
    some paper, etc.  I got a splendid dish of steamed oysters at a saloon and an 
    excellent dinner at Jarrett’s Hotel.  We got back to the camp about dark, pretty 
    tired and muddy.
    Sunday, Jan. 11, 1863
    Got some mail at last.  I received four letters:  from Miss Mollie E. S-----, S.F.E. 
    Jones, Mrs. Ann Gillean and Dr. Thomas H. Howard, acting surgeon at Front Royal, 
    Va.  Spent the day after inspection reading, etc.  Wrote two letters—one to Mrs. 
    Ann Gillean concerning her deceased son and the other to Mrs. Jane E. Becker 
    informing her of her husband’s death.
    Monday, Jan. 12, 1863
    I got two letters this morning.  One from Jacob L. Fraley and the other from J.W. 
    Ballantine.  I employed myself in writing to father and mother and in penning a 
    long epistle to Jacob L. Fraley in answer to his amusing letter.  When engaged 
    on the latter I as detailed as officer of the guard and had to leave.  I returned after 
    dark and have just finished it (11:30 p.m.).  Nothing of interest today.
    Tuesday, Jan. 13, 1863
    Got a letter from cousin Mary R. Kimball this morning. Wrote to Miss Mollie E. 
    S----- and answered cousin Mary K.
    Wednesday, Jan. 14, 1863
    Had company drill this morning.  No drill in the evening.  The day was warm and 
    rather cloudy—foreboding foul weather.  My mess and I busied ourselves in the 
    evening putting a chimney to our fly; succeeded admirably.
    Thursday, Jan. 15, 1863
    Got orders to be ready to move on the cars; packed up and sent the flies and 
    baggage to the wagons.  Had to remain all night.  About midnight it commenced 
    to rain—sent and got our flies and slept comfortably till morning.
    Friday, Jan. 16, 1863
    Quite a disagreeable day—wet, cold, windy.  Our wagons and the greater part of 
    the division got off today—leaving us tentless. We (of our mess) built us a little 
    pine brush house around our chimney and remained as comfortable as 
    circumstances would permit.
    Saturday, Jan. 17, 1863
    Reveille at 4:00 a.m., started for the city shortly afterwards.  Arrived at the depot 
    at 6:00 a.m.  Very cold.  Got off for North Carolina at 10:00 a.m.  Got to Weldon, 
    N.C., at 4:30 in the afternoon.  Started to Goldsboro about dark.  If possible, it 
    was colder than it was this morning.  I got my trunk at Petersburg it having been 
    sent by express from Gordonsville by J.L. Fraley—also a note from him. 
    Sunday, Jan. 18, 1863
    Got to Goldsboro at daybreak after having spent a miserable night.  We were 
    crowded and jammed in the boxes and could not lie nor sit with any ease or 
    satisfaction and during the whole time suffered from piercing cold.  Left 
    Goldsboro for Warsaw at 10:00 a.m. and arrived at the latter place at 8:00 p.m.  
    Bivouacked within one fourth mile of the station.  Wrote to Jacob L. Fraley 
    thanking him for my trunk.
    Monday, Jan. 19, 1863
    Remained in camp near the station and did nothing of consequence.  Our 
    bivouacs are in a field with pine for fire wood.
    Tuesday, Jan. 20, 1863
    Worked hard at building a shanty; did not get it completed until orders were 
    received to leave it in the morning.  Commenced (illegible word) before night; 
    all my labor lost.  House  leaked and we spent quite a disagreeable night.  
    Rained very hard part of the time.
    Wednesday, Jan. 21, 1863
    Started at the time designated.  Had a tedious march.  Much delay occurred 
    in crossing branches, creeks, swamps.  Cloudy all day.
    Thursday, Jan. 22, 1863
    Remained in camp until 3:30 p.m. when my company, together with Companies 
    A & B were ordered to prepare immediately to go on picket.  We started at 4:00 
    and from our position on the main road from Kenansville to Kinston and about 
    2.5 miles from camp.  We relieved three companies from the 56th Regiment.  
    My company was place in the advanced post about one mile in front.
    Friday, Jan. 23, 1863
    Like this kind of picketing amazingly; no enemy within thirty miles, a strong 
    picket of cavalry in front—chicken, sausages, puddings, eggs, potatoes, 
    ground peas plenty and cheap.  We enjoyed ourselves last night by a good 
    fire.  Today Lt. Krider and I got our meals at a private house at fifty cents per 
    meal and better fare than Richmond affords at $1.50.  Supplied ourselves with 
    sausages, etc.  Relieved at 5:00 pm and came to camp.  Lt. Krider’s wife has 
    arrived and of course he was absent from camp.  We have seen no sunshine 
    since we have been in N.C.
    Saturday, Jan. 24, 1863
    I received letters from Capt. W.A. Kerr, Corp.(?) C.D. Hill and Mrs. Jane E. 
    Becker the former of which I answered.  Mrs. Becker’s is a sad letter—relating 
    the death of her husband, a member of my company of which sad event she 
    had just been informed by a previous letter of mine.
    Sunday, Jan. 25, 1863
    Occupied myself in reading and writing.  The sun once more blessed us with 
    its cheerfulness.  I got a letter tonight from my fair correspondent Miss Mollie 
    E. S-----.  Our wagons did not arrive as all hoped and expected they would.
    Monday, Jan. 26, 1863
    Had dress parade at 9:00 a.m.  Two hours in company drill afterwards.  
    Battalion drill in the evening.  Our wagons arrived tonight with our flies, bed 
    clothing and trunks, etc.  The day was clear and warm.
    Tuesday, Jan. 27, 1863
    Had battalion drill in the morning.  Returned from drill and moved camp about 
    one and one quarter mile.  Rain in the evening.  Some companies of our 
    regiment went off on picket duty this evening.
    Wed., Jan. 28, 1863
    Busy all day building a chimney and fixing our fly.  Slight sprinkle of rain 
    occurred.  Got chimney done but it smokes. 
    Thursday, Jan. 29, 1863
    This morning our regiment ordered out without arms to clean off a parade and 
    dress ground.  In the afternoon, a regimental court martial of which Lt. Col. 
    Flemming, another lieutenant and myself are members and Capt. Davis Judge 
    Advocate, met and remained in session all evening.
    Friday, Jan. 30, 1863
    Wrote letters to Miss Mollie E. S-----, Miss Ruth A. Chambers, Jacob L. Fraley 
    and subscribed to the “Carolina Watchman”.  In the evening I was detailed as
     “officer of the day” for the regiment.  I got letters from Ruth A. Chambers and 
    Jacob L. Fraley.  A grand military ball has been gotten up for officers of this 
    brigade.  It commences in Kenansville tonight.  Several from our regiment 
    intend going.  I cannot go as I have not procured a new uniform and my 
    clothing is rather threadbare and coarse.
    Saturday, Jan. 31, 1863
    Dress parade at 9:00 a.m.  I took out the guard—a practice unknown to me 
    until my connection with this regiment.  After parade the guard returned and 
    the companies practiced company drill a short while.  The military ball was, I 
    understand a great success. Brigadier General Ransom and a large concourse 
    of officers from the brigade were present.  Captain Davis, Captain Moore(?), Lts. 
    Phifer and Harris and perhaps one or two others  (including the colonel, I believe) 
    attended.  I went downtown and made arrangements to have by trunk out from 
    Warsaw by the hack.  I bought Andrews and Stoddard’s Latin Grammar and 
    Clark’s English Grammar.  Tonight at 8:00 we got orders to be ready to move at 
    a moment’s notice.  There is evidently something at hand.
    Sunday, Feb. 1, 1863
    This morning we had inspection.  While we were in the line the church bell rang.  
    Its slow and solemn peals carry with it a softening melancholy feeling.  I could 
    almost imagine myself once more in the moral little village of Taylorsville, N.C.  
    That it was the bell of the neat little Presbyterian Church that I heard.  I could 
    almost see my young companions of those days winding their way to attend 
    Divine service.  Alas!  They are scattered never on earth again to be united!  I 
    was carried back, also, to a later period when the Davidson College bell called 
    us to Sabbath School or to listen to the teachings of the president Dr. Kirkpatrick. 
    This evening we, that is my company, were ordered on picket.  The number of 
    enlisted men of my company not being sufficient the number was called up from 
    Company D.  We got off bout 4:00 and arrived at our post a little before dark.  
    Got letters from Aunt Ruth and Dr. Woodville.
    Monday, Feb. 2, 1863
    This morning threatened rain but during the day it cleared off warm.  Nothing of 
    interest occurred today till we were relieved when we wended our way back to 
    camp.  We have heard of the  victory for our arms at Charleston Harbor.  It is 
    reported that our gun boats destroyed several of the enemy vessels and captured 
    Tuesday, Feb. 3, 1863
    Light snow fell to the depth of several inches.  No roll call this morning, no dress 
    parade, no drill.  Received a letter from my fair correspondent Miss Mollie E. S-----.  
    Cold today.  Continued snowing until about 10:00 a.m.  No news of consequence 
    from any quarter.  Wrote to Sgt. J. Nelson Thompson about L.(?) N. Gillian’s 
    affairs—about Link’s furlough—about writing and getting an obituary published.  
    Wrote to an agent of the Southern Express Company, Richmond, Va., concerning 
    Gillian’s effects.
    Tuesday, Feb. 17, 1863
    Cloudy and rainy day.  Was variously employed in my tent all day.  Received a 
    letter from Miss Mollie E. S----- in which was enclosed a dainty piece of my 
    cousin Mollie White’s wedding cake upon which I was requested to dream.  I 
    was late this evening invited by Adj. Durham to accompany him and others of 
    the regiment to a party in Kenansville.  Although the weather was inclement 
    and the night dark I resolved to go.
    Wednesday, Feb. 18, 1863
    Last night Lts. Audrey, (illegible name-Higgins?), Phifer, Rankin, Harris and 
    Adjutant Durham, Capt. George and I went in the ambulance to the party.  
    Owing, I suppose, to the inclement weather, the ladies did not come in as early 
    or as in such numbers as expected.  There was a preponderance of gentlemen 
    over ladies.  Lts. Audrey, Higgins, Phifer, Adjutant Durham and I returned to camp 
    about 10:00.  Rain! Rain! Rain!  All day and nearly all the time the rain fell in 
    copious showers.
    Thursday, Feb. 19, 1863
    Got some coats, pants, and drawers for the company and distributed them.  
    Company drill in the evening. Went through with the skirmish.  After drill I wrote 
    to Miss Mollie E. S-----.  The weather cleared off this evening and from present 
    appearances we are likely to have some fine weather now.
    Friday, Feb. 20, 1863
    Drill both morning and evening.  Detailed as regular officer of the guard.  Received 
    and distributed 18 pairs of pants.
    Saturday, Feb. 21, 1863
    Had company drill in the morning.  After it the men were allowed to prepare
     themselves for inspection.  Received marching orders this evening after the 
    new guard was put on.
    Sunday, Feb. 22, 1863
    Hard rain last night.  Started for Magnolia a little after 7:00.  Rained on us nearly 
    all the way.  Got on the cars—open flats—about 4:00 p.m. and after a cold, 
    disagreeable ride arrived at Wilmington at 10:00 p.m.  We found some old winter 
    quarters into which we went.  This is the anniversary of Washington’s birthday 
    and the inauguration of Jefferson Davis as president under the permanent constitution.  
    Washington was born in 1732 and Davis inaugurated in 1862.
    Monday, Feb. 23, 1863
    Remained all day in the cabins. Wood was hauled to us and we did pretty well.  
    The remaining companies of our regiment—D, K and F, did not arrive today.  Lt. 
    Bowers’ wife got here this evening and he went to town to stay with her.  We 
    received orders to be ready to move at 9:00 in the morning. 
    Tuesday, Feb. 24, 1863
    Started at the appointed hour, marched through Wilmington and about two and a half 
    miles down the Cape Fear and halted.  We are in what I suppose is called a forest 
    here.  There are small, stunted oak bushes and a few scattered pines, also of a 
    stunted grown about.  There seems to be one immense bed of sand here.  This is 
    so white that at a distance it looks like snow.  This is truly a dreary looking country.
    Wednesday, Feb. 25, 1863
    Got a permit and went to town, saw some vessel said to be English which had 
    just run the blockade and I finally got bored and left for camp.  Got letters from 
    Sgt. J. Nelson Thompson and Aunt Ruth A. Chambers.  About 7:00 tonight Sgt. 
    Thompson arrived bringing me a letter, a pair of pants, a pair of socks, some paper 
    and envelopes which had been sent from Aunt Ruth.
    Thursday, Feb. 26, 1863
    Got a letter from Jacob Menis, Esq., dated Jan. 28, making an inquiry about his 
    son who died in the hospital in Richmond in December last.  I answered this letter 
    and wrote a letter to Aunt Ruth A. Chambers.
    Friday, Feb. 27, 1863
    Lt. Krider and J.T. Ray went to town today.  Lt. Bowers who has been there with 
    his family for several days, returned this morning.  I wrote a letter of inquiry to 
    Captain(?) G.W. Alexander, Assistant Provost Marshall, at Richmond, Va., 
    concerning a William Moyle of this company.  I also addressed a letter to Miss 
    I.(?) at Kenansville. We received blanks this evening upon which to make out 
    our muster rolls for January and February.  These must be finished by early 
    Saturday, Feb. 28, 1863
    Muster and inspection today.  I was busy preparing muster rolls all morning.  
    Being on brigade guard, I escaped the forms of inspection and muster.  It 
    rained all forenoon and though cloudy, was very cold all evening.  I received a 
    letter from Mrs. Elizabeth Gallimore inquiring about her son who died from the 
    effects of his wound in the Battle of Sharpsburg.
    Sunday, March 1, 1863
    Nothing unusual occurred until 11:00 when Rev. Mr. Russell, a Presbyterian 
    minister now on a visit to this brigade, delivered a discourse from Revelations, 
    3rd Chapter, 20th Verse.  During the evening and night, Captain George and I 
    read aloud alternately abut 160 pages from Baxter’s book “Sacred Rest”.  Oh! 
    That I could or would apply the counsels contained therein practically to myself.  
    Col. McAfee who has been home on a short furlough, returned today.
    The Landmark, January 31, 1924
    Monday, March 2, 1863
    Lts. Bowers, Krider and I made out our accounts for January and February 
    and received our pay from Major C. Drewry, Quartermaster of the Brigade.  I 
    wrote letters to Mrs. Elizabeth Gallimore, Jacob A. Barger, Daniel Kern, Jr., 
    and sent W.B. Gallmore’s final statement to the 2nd Auditor of the C.S. 
    Treasury.  I received a letter from Miss Mollie E. S-----.
    Tuesday, March 3, 1863
    Had two inspections, regimental in the morning and by the division inspector 
    in the evening.  Wrote to Miss Mollie E. S----- and cousin Mary Chambers.  
    Nothing new.
    Wednesday, March 4, 1863
    Company drill in the morning and evening.  Cold as whiz.  Nothing of interest 
    occurred.  Major Chambers started home on a furlough today for 18 days. 
    Friday, March 6, 1863
    Company drill in the morning and evening and dress parade after evening 
    training.  Wrote a letter to Captain J.G. Knox.  Let the none most worthy men 
    draw for a chance at a furlough.
    Saturday, March 7, 1863
    No drill today. Arranged camp in the morning and allowed the men to wash 
    for the remainder of the day.  E.C. Lentz, Drum Major, got a furlough for 16 
    days and started for home this evening.  Got a letter from Mollie K.
    Sunday, March 8, 1863
    Inspection in the morning.  Warm and clear though windy.  Tonight T.L. 
    Thompson and William Johnston started home on furlough for 18 days.
    Monday, March 9, 1863
    Company drill in the evening after a review by General Longstreet in the 
    morning.  Received a special invitation to a select party in Wilmington tonight 
    and have resolved to go.  Col. McAfee, Captain Durham, (former adjutant), Lt. 
    Harris and I went over about dark.  Got a letter from Capt. G.W. Alexander.
    Tuesday, March 10, 1863
    The party did not break up until 4:00 in the morning.  It was held at the Rock 
    Spring Hotel (kept by Mrs. McCaleb).  I enjoyed myself very much indeed.  
    Had a pleasant time with a Miss Houston of Kenansville and Miss Hannah 
    Kelley of Wilmington.  At 9:00 this morning the companies went out to drill 
    and had been out about ten minutes when they were suddenly ordered in 
    and told to prepare immediately to march.  AT 10:00 off we went.  We 
    entered Wilmington and turned eastward and continued to march along a 
    good road in that direction until 12 miles from town were reached when we 
    Wednesday, March 11, 1863
    Reveille at daylight.  We remained in camp all day contrary to expectations.  
    Wrote a letter to cousin Mollie Kimball.
    Thursday, March 12, 1863
    This morning at 7:00 we moved camp about two miles. We put up our flies 
    and arranged our camp.
    Friday, March 13, 1863
    This morning about 8:00 we were marched fully a mile to a field, had dress 
    parade and then company drill.  After we came back, I wrote to Aunt Ruth
    A. Chambers and the editor of the “Carolina Watchman” changing the 
    address of my paper from Goldsboro to Wilmington.  In the evening, I was 
    detailed as officer of the regimental guard and in consequence did not have 
    to drill.  I received a letter from Miss K----- F----- of Hallsville, N.C. this 
    evening and was no little pleased.
    Saturday, March 14, 1863
    On guard all day.  Got letters from cousin Justina, Lt. J.L. Lyerly and my 
    step father.  Wrote to Lt. Lyerly enclosing a certificate to obtain state bounty 
    for Jno. N. Gillean, deceased, of my company.
    Sunday, March 15, 1863
    A warm, beautiful day.  Had regular inspection by Col. Flemming.  I wrote 
    letters to  mother, cousin Justina and Miss Flora McCaleb.
    Monday, March 16, 1863
    Company drill this morning.  Lts. Krider and Thompson were sent off with 
    a working party.  Battalion drill in the evening.  Got letters from Miss Mollie 
    E. S----- and James M. Link.  The latter enclosed a surgeon’s certificate of
     his unfitness for duty—less than sixty days from March 7.  I wrote letters 
    to Miss Kate F----- and Miss Mollie E. S-----.  The day has been warm and 
    Tuesday, March 17, 1863
    This morning I had to command the parade.  The lieutenant colonel has 
    resolved that each captain shall command a dress parade in succession.  
    Company drill in the evening; battalion drill in the evening.
    Wednesday, March 18, 1863
    This morning the whole regiment—in fact the whole brigade—went out on 
    fatigue duty. We had to throw up breastworks in a swamp about a mile 
    from camp.
    The Landmark, February 4, 1924
     Thursday, March 19, 1863
    Long before day, while the rain was pouring down, we received orders to 
    be ready to move at the break of day.  At daylight we were ready and after 
    a while we were put into line of battle ready for the march.  After waiting a 
    long time at last we started.  Such a march we had!  Mud! Mud! Mud!  It 
    was the most disagreeable march that we have yet seen.  The whole 
    distance was through a low, swampy country—frequent ponds and wide, 
    meandering streamlets.  Through these we had to plunge.  We got to the 
    railroad station about 2:00 hungry and tired.  We found that our orders had 
    been countermanded and that we would have to retract our steps to the 
    camp.  So making ourselves as comfortable as circumstances would 
    permit we remained at the station overnight.
    Friday, March 20, 1863
    This morning we got an early start back.  After a repetition of yesterday we 
    arrived at our camp of yesterday morning.  It rained nearly all day.  We were 
    wet, cold and hungry.  Our baggage was considerably scattered by our late 
    hasty movements and my mess and I were without a fly until nearly night.  
    Captain George, our commissary, who has been absent on a furlough, 
    returned this evening.   I received orders to have my company in readiness 
    to move by daylight in the morning.
    Saturday, March 21, 1863
    Remained in camp all day awaiting orders. None came.  However, it rained 
    nearly all day and pretty hard at that.  This evening I got letters from my 
    friend and classmate K.H. Sadler and from cousin Mary A. Chambers;  
    also the words of “Bonny Eloise” and “Do They Miss Me At Home?” in the 
    beau chirography of Miss Flora McC----- of Wilmington.  This evening I 
    again received orders to report to General Ransom by 6:30 in the morning.  
    Lt. Krider’s application for a furlough resulted in his received from 
    departmental headquarters this evening a furlough for 20 days from yesterday.  
    Lt. Bowers was this evening summoned to appear in Wilmington on Monday 
    morning to stand his trial for charges preferred against him in July last and in 
    consequence of which he has been under arrest since that date.  Sgt. Ray 
    was also summoned as a witness.
    Saturday, March 22, 1863
    This morning at the appointed time, we reported to General Ransom and 
    were ordered to New Tonsail Inlet, some eight miles east of the camp of 
    our regiment.  Away I and my little company went and at 9:30 we arrived 
    at our destination.  We found some rustic little cabins into which we went.  
    There is a salt manufactory here owned by some person in Magnolia, I 
    believe.  For the first time in my life I stood upon the shores of the State of 
    North Carolina. The scene was entirely new to me.  I spent the whole 
    evening in looking out at the ocean which is some two miles distant.  The 
    frothy, white foam was beautiful and it appeared in the distance like huge 
    things chasing each other in a merry play.
    Monday, March 23, 1863
    Remained in camp all day.  No rations came.  We are all hungry as wolves.  
    We tried to get a boat today but failed entirely.  We managed to buy a little 
    corn meal.  Wrote to K.H. Sadler.
    Tuesday, March 24, 1863
    Sent Sgt. Geisler and a man to try to get a boat.  While they were gone the 
    commissary sergeant of our regiment brought us a good supply of rations.  
    The wagon was scarcely out of sight when Geisler and Sides returned without 
    a boat.  They had not been in camp ten minutes when Charley Reed, one of 
    General Ransom’s orderlies, rode up in great haste with orders for us to 
    return to our regiment as soon as possible.  In a short time, we were on our 
    way.  It poured down rain upon us the greater part of the way.  We arrived at 
    the camp of our regiment about 3:00 and the regiment under marching orders.  
    I got two letters today—one from Aunt Ruth and one from J.G. Knox.
    Wednesday, March 25, 1863
    Reveille at 2:30 a.m.  Marched at 6:00 and arrived in Wilmington about 3:00 p.m.  
    The 25th and 35th regiments (illegible words) the town this evening and we 
    bivouacked a mile and a half from town.
    Thursday, March 26, 1863
    I went to town and remained nearly all day.  Bought some books, got my dinner 
    and we returned to the regiment.  At 5:00 p.m. we went into town and we got off 
    for Goldsboro.
    Friday, March 27, 1863
    Traveled all night—got to Goldsboro at daylight.  Camped on the edge of town.  
    Had a sermon in the evening from a Baptist track agent.  Lay out without a tent 
    or fly.
    Saturday, March 28, 1863
    Rained all day today.  Remained in camp all day without duty.  I went down this 
    evening and bought a gold pen.
    Sunday, March 29, 1863
    Had preaching in the morning by Rev. Mr. Andrews and in the evening by our 
    friend the Baptist track agent.  Gouger, several others and I went to town tonight 
    to hear Rev. A.W. Mangum of the Methodist Church. Very few were in attendance 
    and he did not preach a sermon but merely made a talk.
    The Landmark, February 7, 1924
    Monday, March 30, 1863
    Our wagon arrived this morning with our baggage.  I was detailed as officer of the 
    brigade guard.  There was company drill in the morning and battalion drill in the 
    evening.  It has been quite cold today.  Bill, our cook, started home this evening.  
    Lt. Bowers started for Wilmington to attend his trial.
    Tuesday, March 31, 1863
    Company drill in the morning and battalion drill in the evening.  Got a supply of 
    clothing for my company.
    Wednesday, April 1, 1863
    I was most unwell last night and today.  Had drill in the morning and evening.  
    Orders for reduction of (illegible words) were received today.  Lt. Bowers returned 
    from Wilmington.  His court martial was not ready to take up his case.
    Thursday, April 2, 1863
    Company drill in the morning.  Rather unexpectedly we received orders to pick 
    up our baggage immediately as we had to be at the depot ready to get on the 
    train within an hour.  Everything was, of course, hurry, bustle, confusion.  Soon, 
    however, we were at the railroad and ready to get on the cars.  At 3:00 we got off 
    and within two hours arrived at Kinston.  We marched along the railroad tracks a 
    mile further and bivouacked.  I am still unwell.  I left my trunk in the express office 
    with directions to send it to Salisbury for which I paid in advance.  Only a part of 
    the regiment came on the same grain the remainder were to come during the night.
    Friday, April 3, 1863
    Lt. Thompson, Sgt. Barger, and I joining our supply of two blankets, lay down 
    on the ground and slept through the night.  The remainder of the regiment 
    together with the 56th (?) arrived during the night.  This morning we marched 
    about one and a half miles to an old field thickly covered with young pines, where 
    we camped.  Our wagon arrived about 2:00 with our baggage.  Had a call from 
    my old classmate Theodore E. Cairns.  He is in the cavalry.
    Saturday, April 4, 1863
    A cold wind blew all day, rendering it uncomfortable everywhere but in bed and 
    even there if one did not have an abundance of clothing.  Had company drill in 
    the morning, no drill in the evening.
    Sunday, April 5, 1863
    A bright, clear, beautiful Sabbath.  How mellowing the hallowed influences of 
    this holy day!  Every roll of the drum and every discordant sound seemed doubly
    inappropriate on this calm, still day.  Oh!  How such a day leads one back to the 
    blessed days of the past.  Even the irreligious desire to hear the solemn peals 
    of the church bells on such occasions.
    Monday, April 4, 1863
    Company and battalion drill today.  A pleasant and beautiful day.  Such weather 
    is appreciated by us now after such weather we have had for some time past up 
    to yesterday.  I was detailed this evening as senior officer of the brigade guard.  
    Captain Petty is field officer of the day.  Lts. Higgins, Harris and Weaver are my 
    assistants with the guard.  We received orders to hold ourselves in readiness to 
    march at a moments notice.
    Tuesday, April 7, 1863
    This morning about 8:00 we received orders to march immediately.  We took 
    the road which seemed to me to fun in a northeasterly course from Kinston.  
    We marched until 2:00 at General Ransom’s usual fast gait only rested twice 
    and then but a short period.  We halted near the bridge over Cotentnea Creek.
    Wednesday, April 8, 1863
    We lay around our camp until we received orders to march.  We took our way 
    back towards Kinston and arrived at our camp at 3:00.  Lt. Krider and Major 
    Chambers who have been home on furlough, arrived this evening.
    Thursday, April 9, 1863
    No drill in the morning, battalion drill in the evening.
    Friday, April 10, 1863
    No drill in the morning; at 1:00 we received marching orders; about 2:30 we 
    started on our way.  At 7:30 after a dusty march we arrived at our former camp 
    at Cotentnea Creek Bridge.
    Saturday, April 11, 1863
    After a night of sound sleep, we got up, ate breakfast and received orders to 
    march.  Soon we were on our way back to Kinston.  We arrived at our old 
    camp about 1:00 after a dusty, warm, disagreeable march.
    Sunday, April 12, 1863
    Inspection at 9:00.  The day was clear and warm.  Dress parade in the evening.  
    It clouded up towards night and threatened rain.
    Monday, April 13, 1863
    We had a tolerable heavy rain today.  No drill this morning in consequence.  
    Battalion drill in the evening.
    Tuesday, April 14, 1863
    Drill both morning and evening.  Nothing of interest took place.  Preparations 
    are being made for a party.
    The Landmark, February 11, 1924
    Wednesday, April 15, 1863
    Last night I attended the party and ladies from Goldsboro and Wilmington 
    were present.  Frank Johnston, a string bad from Wilmington, furnished sweet 
    music, meanwhile fair ladies and gallant gentlemen threaded the mystic 
    mazes of the cotillion and the waltz.  The dance was continued until 2:30 
    when the party broke up.  During the time we were at the dance it rained and 
    afterwards continued to pour with unabated vigor.  Captain Connor and I sallied 
    forth for camp.  The night was extremely dark and our tramp in the rain was 
    anything but agreeable.
    Thursday, April 16, 1863
    Last night we received orders to be ready at early dawn.  Accordingly, we had 
    reveille at 3:00 and at the appointed hour were on our way to town with the 
    expectation of taking the train.  Rather to our surprise and disappointment we 
    were ordered to the south side of the Neuse.  We halted from 8:00 to noon. The 
    regiment was then divided, Companies F and I under Captain Davis were sent in 
    one direction; Companies A & B under Captain Lyle(?) went in another direction; 
    D. H. C and G under Major Chambers were ordered to picket on the lower Trent 
    Road.  Our position was about twenty miles from Kinston.  54 men were detached 
    this evening for picket duty.  Captain Black and Lt. Hogan were placed in charge.  
    Company K or our regiment remained at Kinston and Company E was left at camp.
    Friday, April 17, 1863
    This morning a new picket was established and Capt. Petty was placed in charge, 
    assisted by Lt. Thompson.  Just as the old picket had returned, an alarm gun was 
    fired by the outpost picket.  We then heard two or three booms from a cannon.  
    We got into our breast works as quickly as possible and after waiting for some 
    time my company with Captain Petty’s under Lt. Rankin was ordered to skirmish 
    up our front and if possible re-establish our picket post.  This we succeeded in 
    doing without any difficulty.  We saw where the shells of the enemy had struck 
    and got one which had not burst and the pieces of one that had.  As near as we 
    can judge, there were two companies of cavalry with a piece of field artillery with 
    the party who molested us this morning. Captain George, our regimental 
    commissary, came down this evening and remained all night.  After dark, two 
    pieces of Bunting’s Artillery arrived and were placed in position.
    Saturday, April 18, 1863
    Captain Deron and Lt. Linebarger were placed in charge of the pickets.  The 
    ambulances from Wise Fork came down today after the sick.  
    Sunday, April 19, 1863
    This morning I was placed in charge of the pickets assisted by Lt. Torrence.  
    Was engaged in throwing up a breast work at the headquarters of the pickets 
    for their protection in case of an attack.  Had an interview with two ladies—
    Misses Scott—who came up in a buggy to our post. Their professed, and it 
    may be, real purpose was to make some arrangements by which they could 
    convey to us some provisions which are secreted in their neighborhood in the 
    vicinity of Deer Gully.  After a long conversation, they returned and so did we.  
    They to go to their home and we, or at least I, to be more vigorous than ever.  
    I went around after 8:00 and visited the posts.  At 11:00 I went back.  
    Monday, April 20, 1863
    Was aroused at 2:00 and remained up until relieved by Lts. Rankin and Blue.  
    Bailey, Sides and Robinson who had remained at camp expecting to see their 
    wives, came down today and brought some letters.  The day has been 
    exceedingly warm and sultry.  In the evening there were strong indications of 
    a heavy thunder shower.
    Tuesday, April 21, 1863
    Last night about 9:00 a few drops of rain fell.  About 10:00 a dispatch from 
    General Ransom arrived giving Bailey, Sides and Thomas of my company 
    permission to go to Kinston to see their wives.  The men were greatly elated 
    and soon on their way rejoicing.  This morning the air is quite cool rendering a 
    good fire very comfortable.  In the evening Captain George came down with the 
    wagon bringing two days rations.  He brought rumors that our forces had taken 
    Suffolk, Virginia.  In the taking of it, General Longstreet was wounded and 
    afterwards died.  Our men immediately fell back, evacuating the place.  It is 
    to be hoped that the rumor concerning Lt. General Longstreet is unfounded.
    NOTE:  General Longstreet was not hurt.  Captain George also brought us the 
    particulars of the fight in which the other companies of our regiment have been 
    engaged.  Some of ours have been wounded and others missing.  None is 
    known to be killed.
    Wednesday, April 22, 1863
    The rumor from Suffolk was mainly incorrect.  The place has not been 
    assaulted nor was General Longstreet hurt.  There has been some fighting 
    in that vicinity recently.  One man of our regiment was killed in the recent 
    fight on the Dover Road.  No important news from any other quarter.
    The Landmark, Feb. 14, 1924
    Thursday, April 23, 1863
    Today it rained heavily until about 3:00 in the afternoon.  Dave (Major 
    Chamber’s servant) who has been home, returned today bringing with him 
    large bags of good things from loved ones at home.  I got a letter from my 
    good Aunt Ruth in which she informed me that she has sent nine dozen 
    eggs, two pair of socks, some dried beef and a good tin cup.  How thankful 
    we ought to be that we have such good friends at home.
    Friday, April 24, 1863
    We were relieved this morning by a portion of the 56th Regiment and 
    forthwith started back to camp.  We got to Wise Fork a while before the 
    run went down and then waited until all the other companies arrived.  The 
    regiment then went several miles further, crossed the railroad tracks and 
    Saturday, April 25, 1863
    The left wing of the regiment threw up breastworks in the morning; the right 
    wing in the evening.  Received a furlough of 18 days for Samuel S. Benson 
    of my company dated from tomorrow.  Mr. Ortho Lyerly arrived today with 
    boxes of good things from home for the men of my company.  Much good 
    feeling prevails in consequence.
    Sunday, April 26, 1863
    A clear, calm, bright, beautiful day.  Remained in camp all day.  Nothing 
    new occurred.
    Monday, April 27, 1863
    This whole regiment was ordered out at 7:00 this morning.  Col. Flemming 
    requests me to take my company and continue to put on the timber on the 
    breastworks.  The other companies were to dig the ditch and complete the 
    work.  Major General D.H. Hill visited the place to see how the work was 
    coming.  At 7:00 in the evening, in consideration of my happiness of my 
    part of the work, put part of my company to shoveling and permitted me to 
    remain in camp and make out muster and pay rolls.  Mr. Ortho Lyerly, who 
    brought some boxes to my company, returned home today.  My classmate 
    Lt. Potts of Company F who has been on a short visit here, had his wounded 
    furlough extended and went home.
    Tuesday, April 28, 1863
    Last night and this morning it rained so much that we did not stir out of camp.  
    About 9:00 it ceased raining and by 10:00 we were ordered out to work.  I, 
    with Corp. Lyerly, was allowed to remain in camp to work on the muster rolls.  
    Later in the evening we heard heavy musketry in the direction of Gum Swamp.  
    It was afterwards ascertained that Col. Faison of the 36th (?), who was on 
    picket there, was attacked by a superior force and compelled to retire.  About 
    the time the firing was heard, our regiment was engaged in discharging the
    pieces which had been loaded ever since we ourselves had been on picket duty.  
    Just as my company was getting ready to fire, the colonel received orders to 
    throw out pickets in front of our works immediately.  Part of my company under 
    Lt. Krider went on this duty.
    Wednesday, April 29, 1863
    Reveille at 3:00; baggage and flies sent up and the wagons loaded.  We were 
    in the breastworks by daylight ready for an attack. All my company worked 
    on the breastworks today.
    Thursday, April 30, 1863
    Rain last night.  Muster at 9:00 after which the men went out to work.  Corp. 
    Lyerly and I finished our muster rolls.
    Friday, May 1, 1863
    Last night after supper was over and we were about to go to bed we were 
    startled by the firing of our pickets.  Everything was in confusion—everyone 
    excited.  The companies were soon formed and away we went on the double 
    quick for our breastworks.  Men had dashed away their suppers they were 
    cooking, their rations and their knapsacks in the hurry of excitement.  The 
    whole affair turned out to be a false alarm caused by a company from another 
    of our regiments going on picket.  We returned to our camp and collected as 
    well as we could the scattered articles of camp furniture.  About 10:00 today 
    we were ordered down to work upon the fortifications and remained there all 
    day.  Tonight two conscripts—Rice and Thomason—came to my company.
    Saturday, May 2, 1863
    Got a pass and Major Chamber’s man Dave and I went to Kinston this morning.  
    Saw nothing; got bored; returned to camp.
    Sunday, May 3, 1863
    No duty at all today.  We remained quietly in camp and enjoyed the clear, 
    calm, warm breeze, a beautiful Sabbath.  Two years ago today I left Davidson 
    Monday, May 4, 1863
    The regiment was ordered out to commence a new line of breastworks.  
    Two years ago I volunteered in Captain John B. Andrews’ company.
    Tuesday, May 5, 1863
    The men were permitted to clean up.  In the afternoon, orders were received 
    to cook two days rations as we would leave our present camp at 11:00 
    tomorrow.  The day has been unpleasantly warm.
    Wednesday, May 6, 1863
    Our orders were changed and we started at 2:00 in the morning.  There 
    had been a hard shower of rain and after we started the rain began to fall 
    again.  We became wet and marched nine miles to Mosely Creek where 
    we bivouacked among one of the hardest rains.
    Thursday, May 7, 1863
     After spending a most disagreeable night, the right wing of the regiment 
    under Captain Davis (Captain Black being sick) was sent on some six 
    miles in front to a position within four miles of Core Creek.  Here we 
    remained all day having Company H on picket duty in front and in rear.
    The Landmark, February 18, 1924
    Friday, May 8, 1863
    This morning, Captain Davis received an order to take us back to Mosely 
    Creek.  After arriving there, and resting, all companies except Companies 
    F & I came on to camp.  Those two companies were kept at Mosely Creek 
    on picket duty.
    Saturday, May 9, 1863
    The particulars of the great Battle of Chancellorsville are beginning to reach 
    us.  In my old regiment (4th N.C.), I learn from a private letter from Statesville 
    that Captain W.G. Falls(?) and Lt. J.P. Cowan of Company A were killed; 
    Lts. McRorie and Carlton of the same company were wounded.  Captain 
    C.S. Alexander of Company C (my old company) had a leg amputated.  
    I trust these reports may be incorrect.  I am anxious for further particulars 
    from the 4th and the state troop regiments as I have many friends in both.  
    I have been busy making out pay rolls and getting them filed.  Lt. Bowers 
    and Lt. Thompson, Sgt. Ray, Corp. Thompson, Private T.L. Thompson and 
    Private Johnston went to Kinston as witnesses in Lt. Bowers’ case now 
    before the court martial.
    Sunday, May 10, 1863
    Another beautiful Sabbath.  Had regimental inspection at 10:00 this morning.  
    Spent the day in camp.  Last night a letter from my fair friend Miss Mollie E. 
    S-----.  I learned the unwelcome news that Captain Falls and Lt. J.P. Cowan 
    of Company A of my old regiment (4th) were killed.  Today I answered her 
    Monday, May 11, 1863
    Lt. Bowers and Lt. Thompson, Sgt. Ray, Corp. W.H. Thompson, Privates
     Johnston and T.L. Thompson went to town to attend the court martial.  Lt. 
    Krider went to town on business.  Two men out of Pettigrew’s Brigade were 
    shot for desertion near Kinston today.  Tonight the papers brought the sad 
    intelligence that Lt. General Jackson had died from the combined effect of 
    his wound and an attack of pneumonia.  I also learned that my beloved friend
    Lt. Col. Junius L. Hill, of the 7th N.C., was killed.  Noble, generous, manly 
    June, I deeply mourn thy untimely fate.  How I valued you, no one knew but 
    myself.  Your presentment has proved correct—it has been thy lot to fall.  
    Yet thou art more happy today than anyone on earth.  May I only be as well 
    prepared to meet the last enemy.
    Tuesday, May 12, 1863
    This morning, the 50th N.C. Regiment came down to relieve us.  I went to 
    town about noon to get Col. Flemming who is there as a witness in Lt. 
    Bowers’ case—to sign our muster rolls and pay rolls.  The news of General 
    Jackson’s death is confirmed by today’s papers also that of my friend Lt. 
    Col. Junius L. Hill.  Got pay for myself for March and April.
    Wednesday, May 13, 1863
    No duties today.  Failed to get pay for my company.  Spent the day in writing 
    letters.  Particulars of the late battle come in slowly.  Samuel S. Benson 
    returned tonight.
    Thursday, May 14, 1863
    Today I obtained a furlough for 18 days counting tomorrow for Wylie B. Daniel 
    of my company.  Had company drill at 8:00 this morning which continued for 
    one hour.  No further news from the scene of the late great battle.  
    Friday, May 15, 1863
    Company drill in the morning.  Got money ($2,300) to pay off my company and 
    paid off the men.  Had battalion drill in the evening.  Today, 21 years ago, my 
    father died.
    Saturday, May 16, 1863
    No drill today.  The men were permitted to wash and clean up.  A great many 
    went fishing.  Lt. Krider and I went to Southwest Creek and took a “round” in 
    the water.
    Sunday, May 17, 1863
    Today I am 22 years of age, I can hardly describe my feelings.  I feel more 
    dissatisfied with myself than I ever did on any previous birthday.  To most 
    persons of my situation, it would be very flattering.  Last year at this time I 
    was a private; today I am a captain.  But this is not what I value most.  I feel 
    grateful to my friends for procuring me the position but that at which I feel 
    most dissatisfied is my slow progress in knowledge.  At 22, I am a stupid 
    ignoramus and in my present situation am likely to remain so.  I fear that 
    the duration of the war will deprive me of a regular college education.  
    But I should hope for the best.  This evening my company was ordered to 
    join Companies D & H on picket duty at Moseley Creek, 9 miles down the 
    Neuse River.  I took my leisure and reported to Captain Black of Company 
    D a little after dark.  We went into some little hovels built by previous pickets.  
    Left Benson and Thomason in charge of the company.
    Monday, May 18, 1863
    This morning, Lt. Krider was detailed as officer in charge of the outpost.  
    Three non-commissioned officers and seven men were detailed as out post 
    pickets.  I lay around camp all day.  Many of the men fished in the creek and 
    caught great many catfish, black fish and eels.
    Tuesday, May 19, 1863
    Seven men and two non-commissioned officers were furnished by the company 
    for the picket today. Nothing else of importance.
    Wednesday, May 20, 1863
    Detailed in the same manner as yesterday.  Many of the men went fishing.
    The Landmark, Feb. 21, 1924
     Thursday, May 21, 1863
    I went fishing today myself.  Caught five and a fine large catfish.  Sgt. Ray 
    accompanied me in a little boat.
    Friday, May 22, 1863
    This morning we heard some heavy guns way down the river.  Later in the 
    morning we heard a rapid cannon fire in a southern direction.  About noon a 
    message from Major Chambers commanding our regiment (Col. Flemming 
    came down to see us yesterday morning and had not come back; Col. McAfee 
    being still at the court martial in Wilmington), for us to go back immediately to 
    our old camp and breast works on Southwest Creek as the enemy had cut off 
    our men on the Dover Road and would probably try to capture us.  This man 
    had not clearly delivered his message when a courier from General Ransom 
    himself arrived in hot haste with the same orders with the additional instruction 
    that we must swim the river if pressed.  Taking this hint, Captain Black and I 
    resolved to collect the boats and cross the river immediately. We sent after 
    Col. Flemming who had gone into the country and withdrew the pickets.  Col. 
    Flemming arrived and approved of our move and taking charge of the few 
    cavalrymen on duty here, dashed up the Neuse Road for Southwest Creek.  
    We crossed without must difficulty and getting onto a good road, moved up 
    the north side of the Neuse until we arrived opposite to our old camp where 
    we again crossed to the south side and about dark got to Southwest bridge.  
    We were all very tired and disappointed to find the works and camp all 
    deserted and to learn that our regiment was at Gum Swamp.  Col. Flemming 
    and his cavalry had gotten through safely.  The colonel, leaving the cavalry to 
    wait for us, had gone on to the regiment.  Captain Black sent a courier on to 
    inform Col. Flemming of our arrival and to receive orders for us.  We lay down 
    to rest until the courier returned.  Later in the night, he came back with orders 
    for us to wait for further orders where we were.
    Saturday, May 23, 1863
    This morning we got orders to rejoin our regiment.  We marched after the 
    forces all day until we went about four miles east of Core Creek.  Here we 
    were ordered back to the creek in all 25 miles.  The day was very hot and 
    when we stopped at night many of the men fell down from heat and exhaustion.
    Sunday, May 24, 1863
    This morning the artillery and infantry all fell back to Core Creek.  We 
    joined our regiment and all rested until about 5:00 pm when we started 
    and about 10:00 we camped at Gum Swamp.
    Monday, May 25, 1863
    This morning we marched back to camp.  On Friday when we heard cannon 
    fire, the 56th and 25th Regiments were surrounded and surprised by the 
    enemy at Gum Swamp.  General Ransom who was present saved himself 
    by the fleetness of his horse.  We lost about 170 men as prisoners.  In the 
    operations since then we have had five wounded but none killed so far.  The 
    enemy’s loss is unknown.  We hear the unpleasant rumor that Vicksburg in 
    Mississippi has been taken by the enemy.
    Farewell, old familiar friend, farewell.  For 17 months, you have been with me 
    through good and evil fortune.  Upon your familiar pages are recorded the deeds 
    of thy owner—the places he visited and the sights he saw.  From the famous, 
    muddy Manassas through different parts of the “Old Dominion” and North 
    Carolina, you have been his companion.  In after years, you may, if he is 
    spared again, meet with him and your records afford him pleasure, but for 
    the present you must leave him.  Should the vicissitudes of war lay him low, 
    you may yet be his friend—being a memento for anyone who may remember 
    that he ever lived and endeavor faithfully to serve his country.  God grant that 
    should the last enemy conquer him, he may be prepared and willing—or if 
    permitted once more to take you up, he may be a better man than when he 
    parted with you.  Be his fate what it may, let him at last have a friend who for 
    his sake will keep and care for you—not throw you away among the rubbish 
    of the garret but preserve you as you would.
    Your Owner and Writer
    Camp near Kinston, N.C.
    Tuesday, May 26, 1863
    The Landmark, Feb. 25, 1924
    Monday, June 1, 1863
    My other diary closed on the 26th May.  Upon the return of our regiment 
    (49th N.C.) to camp near Kinston, after having been on General D. H. Hill’s 
    march to Tuscarora near Newbern.  The next day (Tuesday, 26th), we 
    received orders to cook three days rations and be ready to take the cars 
    the next morning.  Our flies were taken down and our baggage sent to the 
    wagons to be taken to Kinston that night.  Owing to the appearance of 
    rain, the flies were sent back for the night.  Next day we lay in our old 
    camp until after dinner when we marched to Kinston and bivouacked.  
    We remained here that night and on the next morning (30th) took the train.  
    After waiting the passage of the mail train at Goldsboro, we went on to 
    Weldon.  Here we got off the train.  We remained all night and the next 
    morning we took the train for Petersburg, Va., where we arrived at 1:00 
    (Sunday, May 31).  We marched the three miles to the east of the city 
    and camped in the rear of some splendid breast works by a deserted 
    residence between the Norfolk and Petersburg and City Point Railroads.  
    On the 29th May, Lt. Giles Bowers of my company who has been under 
    arrest for about ten months, was restored to duty by order of Maj. General 
    Hill, on our arrival at Petersburg on the 31st May.  Col. McAfee who has
    been on court martial at Wilmington, N.C., since the 10th March, took 
    command of the regiment he having proceeded to Petersburg.  This morning 
    there were, of course, many applications for permission to go to Petersburg.  
    Lt. Krider and Private McCain of my company were allowed to go.  
    Commanders of companies were required to make out descriptive rolls of 
    all deserters from their respective companies.  I suppose for the purpose 
    of advertising. This evening I was detailed as regimental “officer of the day”. 
     Lt. Grier of Company F was detailed as “officer of the guard.”  Fro the 
    second time since my connection with the regiment, we had regular guard 
    mounting which this evening, however, was decidedly irregular.  Tonight we 
    received orders to cook rations and be ready to march at 6:00 a.m. tomorrow.
    Tuesday, June 2, 1863
    This morning at the appointed hour we took up our march to Petersburg.  
    Just as we started, Lt. Bower received an order to consider himself under 
    arrest and to confine himself to quarters when in camp.  We were halted 
    at the Norfolk depot until a train could be got ready for us.  While this was 
    being done, I went up to town and bought the diary for which I paid the 
    neat sum of $2.  I got my measure taken for a uniform and last but not 
    least saw my friend Lt. Charles R. Jones of the 55th N.C.R.  He is an old 
    school mate and fellow clerk in the provost office under Major Cornelius 
    Boyle, Provost Marshall of the Department of Northern Virginia.  He is now 
    detailed and acting as assistant provost marshal at Petersburg.  We got off 
    at 10:30 on the Northern & Petersburg Railroad.  The 24th N.C.R. had just 
    gone on a train before us.  We went about 37 miles and got off at Ivor Station, 
    leaving the railroad to our right, marched about 3 miles and camped.  
    Company D was sent from the station away from the regiment to picket I 
    suppose.  Two miscellaneous regiments went on to Petersburg on the trains 
    that brought us here.  They belong to Brigadier General Davis’ Brigade.  They
    were the 11th and 42nd Mississippi regiments.  
    Wednesday, June 3, 1863
    This morning we had a heavy shower of rain, which, judging from the dust, 
    was very much needed in this section.  Pte. Wylie B. Daniel of my company 
    who has been on furlough, returned to the company today.  After noon, we 
    moved our camp to the place just vacated by the 42nd Mississippi Regiment.  
    Companies K & E were sent on picket today.
    Thursday, June 4, 1863
    We remained in camp all day without any duty. Companies E & K returned
     from picket duty this morning and were succeeded by Companies A & H.  
    Our wagons arrived today and brought the remainder of our baggage.  In our 
    move from Kinston, N.C. to this place, I have somehow lost the cloth for a
    new uniform costing me $50.
    Friday, June 5, 1863
    Remained quietly in camp all day.  Capt. Petty of Company H who has been 
    on a furlough returned today.  I got a furlough for Pte. Miles Harkey of my 
    company today for 16 days.  He started for home immediately.  
    Saturday, June 6, 1863
    Remained in camp all day.  Put in a requisition for clothing for my company 
    and got some articles which I issued.  Was busy all day arranging the clothing 
    account of my company in the back of my diary.  Lt. Krider was detailed on 
    guard and had regular guard mounting.  Had dress parade this evening at 
    which a long order from brigade headquarters was read.
    Sunday, June 7, 1863
    This morning, in accordance with orders received from brigade headquarters, 
    and read on dress parade yesterday evening, we were roused long before the 
    usual time by the roll of the drum.  The regiment was formed under arms in 
    line of battle and after a few remarks by the colonel, dismissed.  He had a 
    rigid regimental inspection at 8:00 this morning.  The remainder of the day 
    wore quietly away, disturbed only by the guard  mounting in the evening.  
    Two years ago today, before C.L. Summers, J.P., I took the oath to serve the 
    state of North Carolina under officers who were then or might thereafter be 
    appointed over me for the continuance of the war.
    The Landmark, Feb. 28, 1924
     Monday, June 8, 1863
    Got my commission as captain from Governor Vance of North Carolina.  
    Had company drill both morning and evening.  Lt. Bowers was released from 
    arrest by order of Lt. Col Clarke, commanding the brigade.
    Tuesday, June 9, 1863
    Company drill in the morning and evening.  Otherwise, the day passed off 
    without any memorable occurrence.  I forgot to mention that acting adjutant 
    Henry H. Dinkins who has been at home(?) reported yesterday and was 
    appointed permanently to the position of first lieutenant and adjutant which 
    position he has been filling for some time.  
    Wednesday, June 10, 1863
    The monotony of drill was today broken by a sermon from our new chaplain, 
    Rev. Lacy and the arrival of the mail.  Our troops still hold Vicksburg.
    Thursday, June 11, 1863
    Usual drill today.  I was detailed “regimental officer of the day” and Lt. Connor 
    of Company I as “officer of the guard”.  Just as we were getting ready for guard 
    mounting we received orders to be ready to march at a moment’s notice  The 
    outpost pickets were sent for and the new relieved the old guard without a 
    ceremony of guard mounting.  About dark, we started and after getting within 
    a short distance of Ivor, we were ordered to “about face” and marched back to 
    camp.  We went to work putting up our flies, fixed up our beds, etc., feeling 
    pretty well assured that we would stay on the Blackwater for some time.  
    The night was quite warm and after our dusty tramp we relished sleep.  
    Friday, June 12, 1863
    This morning at 2:00 we were roused from our slumbers by the sound of the 
    drum.  We had gone to bed at 10:00 last night and in consequence got to 
    sleep only four hours.  We were ordered to strike our tents and sent up our 
    baggage immediately.  We were soon on our way to Ivor.  Companies D, E, 
    & K which were sent on picket as we returned to camp last night, joined us 
    on the road.  A little after sunrise, companies C, G, H. & K of our regiment, 
    getting on a train with the 56th Regiment, started to Petersburg where we 
    arrived about 8:00.  The remainder of the regiment, with the balance of the
    brigade, arrived during the day. We reached Dunn’s Hill where we got mail 
    and where Rev. B.S. Krider (brother of Lt. C.C. Krider of my company) came 
    to us.  He is just from home and expects to pay a pretty long visit to the army 
    in accordance with a resolution of Concord (N.C. Presbytery) requiring each 
    minister to spend a certain portion of the year in the army.  At 4:00 we started 
    on a march along the turnpike road towards Richmond.  We stopped at Drewry’s 
    Bluff 14 miles from Petersburg and eight miles from Richmond, at 10:00 tonight.
    Saturday, June 13, 1863
    This morning, Rev. Mr. Krider, who came up by railroad again got to us.  After 
    dinner, he preached an excellent sermon after which he, Mr. Lacy (our chaplain),
    Lt. Krider and I went down to see the fortifications at the bluff.  Truly they appear 
    impregnable. The gunboat “Richmond” was lying in the river.  The fortifications 
    seem to be constructed with the greatest skill and are of immense strength.
    Sunday, June 14, 1863
    This morning we arranged our camp in more order.  Mr. Krider preached 
    another excellent sermon.  We remained quietly in camp all day.  The 24th, 
    25th, and 56th regiments are now here.
    Monday, June 15, 1863
    Nothing of interest in the morning.  We remained quietly in camp. After 
    dinner, Rev. Mr. Krider and I walked down the bluff and visited the ironclad 
    vessel “Richmond”; we were both forcibly impressed with its strength.  We
    received a mail this evening—the first since our arrival here.
    Tuesday, June 16, 1863
    Got some clothing which I issued to the company.  Rev. Mr. Krider went 
    over the James to visit the battlefields.
    Wednesday, June 17, 1863
    Last night about 10:00 we received orders to sent up baggage and be ready 
    to move immediately.  We soon started in the direction of Petersburg and 
    got four miles, about faced and marched back nearly to camp and then 
    turned and went to the turnpike at the railroad where we lay awaiting a train 
    until this morning.  A little after sunrise, the two trains came along upon 
    which the four regiments were placed.  We made very poor speed out finally 
    getting to Petersburg and marched through the whole length of the city and 
    stopped on the west side of the railroad leading to Weldon.  General Matt 
    W. Ransom, our new brigadier, took command today.  He has been 
    promoted from the cavalry of the 35th N.C. to take his brother’s place 
    (Major General Robert Ransom) as commander of our brigade.  I met with 
    my friend Lt. Charlie Jones, who is Assistant Provost Marshal of Petersburg.  
    When I got back to camp I found my company preparing to go on picket.  
    Being senior captain, I took command, and, after marching in the dark full 
    three miles, found Captain Petty of the 35th (?) N.C. whom we relieved.
    Thursday, June 18, 1863
    This morning after breakfast, Capt. Connor and I took a walk through the 
    country with a view to finding out how the roads lay that we might place our 
    pickets properly.  The news we heard yesterday about Winchester is 
    confirmed by today’s papers.  We captured a large number of prisoners.  
    Vicksburg still holds out bravely.  Hard rain this evening.
    Friday, June 19, 1863
    This morning, Capt. Connor and I were invited to visit the residence of John 
    W. Eppes, Esq. He took us over his farm and showed us a variety of 
    interesting things among which was a cork tree brought from Spain and a 
    beautiful fish and ice pond.  The latter is a beautiful thing—the hillside is 
    covered with beech and oak under whose pleasant shade rustic seats are 
    arranged for the accommodation of visitors.  Upon the pond are two little 
    painted blue boats and in the water the fish can be seen at play.  Last 
    night and this morning a heavy rain fell.  News in today’s papers state our 
    forces have taken Martinsburg, Va.  Dr. Ruffin and Mr. Hall, the druggist of 
    our regiment, came down together to see our sick.  They took William 
    Johnston of my company away in the ambulance.  He is quite sick.  John 
    Terrel of my company, who has been absent sick a long while, returned 
    Saturday, June 20, 1863
    This morning the gentleman who owns the house in which we are quartered, 
    came around.  The seemed somewhat displeased at our making a path 
    through his corn which we had done to only a very small and very necessary 
    extent.  I have been quite unwell today.  A large wagon from camp brought us 
    down three days’ rations, some letters and a newspaper.  From the latter it 
    seems evident that General Lee is going into Maryland and Pennsylvania.  
    Tonight by invitation I took tea at Mr. Eppes.
    Sunday, June 21, 1863
    Early this morning, we received orders to join our regiment at the Richmond 
    Depot in Petersburg.  Away we went and arrived just as our regiment was 
    ordered to get on a train.  All the brigade except the 35th Regiment got on 
    the trains and we soon got to Rice’s Station, got off and marched to the pike 
    road and bivouacked within two miles of Drewry’s Bluff.  Tonight we had 
    services by Rev. Mr. Nicholson who, it seems, has supplanted Mr. Lacy as 
    our chaplain.  I was pleased to meet cousin Joseph F. Chambers in 
    Petersburg this morning.  He is looking quite well.  He came from home with 
    cousin Justina (Major Chambers’ wife) who was also in the city but whom I 
    was unable to see.
    Monday, June 22, 1863
    This morning two years ago, the “Saltillo Boys” under Captain John H. 
    Andrews left Statesville to join their regiment at Garysburg, N.C.  We 
    remained in camp all morning and after dinner I rode to Mr. Gregory’s and 
    spent the evening with cousin Justina.  I was glad to see her looking quite
     well—indeed she appears no older than she did two years ago when I last 
    saw her.  It is reported today that our advanced forces are beyond 
    Chambersburg, Pa.  Accounts from the north show that there is much 
    excitement and alarm.  Vicksburg still holds out.
    Tuesday, June 23, 1863
    This morning we had regimental inspection.  Last night, Rev. S.B.S. Krider 
    and W.B. Watt stayed with us.  They went to the 56th Regiment this 
    morning and this evening started home.  Saw cousin Justina.  I spent the 
    evening quite pleasantly at Drewery’s Bluff with cousin Justina, Mrs. 
    Gregory and Major Chambers.  The news today is that certainly we have 
    possession of Milliken’s Bend which will cut off General Grant’s supply 
    from the river at Vicksburg. General Taylor, of Lt. General E. Kirby Smith’s 
    command, is said to have captured the place.  From Lee’s army we hear 
    nothing but some meager accounts of a fight near (illegible, Aldie?) in Virginia.
    Wednesday, June 24, 1863
    Company drill at 8:00 this morning.  After drill, we policed the camp.  This 
    morning, Thomas M. Cook of my company was sent to the hospital in 
    Richmond. Company drill again at 4:00 this afternoon.  This evening I 
    received a furlough for 20 days.  I made application on the 16th of this 
    month while we were here before.  After consulting with Major Chambers 
    and cousin Justina, I have concluded to wait until next week before starting.
    Thursday, June 25, 1863
    Rained all day.  Received orders to cook three days’ rations and be ready
     to march at a moment’s notice.  A little before dark, we started and as 
    we started in the direction of Richmond, I concluded to go along.  Just as 
    we started, Major Chambers, who had been absent with his wife, came.  
    Through the mud and falling rain, we went across the pontoon bridge to 
    the outskirts of Richmond and then went down the Seven Pines Road.  
    We arrived at the Charles City Road.  A disagreeable march.  It now being 
    late at night, I concluded to stop and, keeping Dave (Major Chambers’ 
    servant), intended to take out my baggage and wait until morning when I 
    would proceed to Richmond.  Major Chambers had gone back after we 
    crossed the pontoon bridge to spend the night with his wife.  Our 
    arrangements were that I was to proceed the next day to Richmond, get 
    my pay and meet cousin Justina at Rice’s Station and thence proceed 
    with her home as fast as convenient.  I was vexed when I stopped to find 
    that the wagons were not immediately behind the brigade.  I resolved, 
    however, to wait for them.  Accordingly, Dave and I sheltered ourselves 
    under a porch and commenced our watch.  Battery after battery of artillery 
    passed but no baggage wagons.
    Friday, June 26, 1863
    Last night Dave and I, being tired, we, like the disciples of old, slept instead of 
    watching.  This morning shortly after daylight, the wagons, detained by an 
    accident last night, arrived.  I got my effects and, with Dave, soon arrived in 
    Richmond.  I then gave Dave a pass back to camp, got my pay, bought some 
    necessary articles and at 4:00 started for Rice’s on the train.  Cousin Justina, 
    fearing I would not come, had not gone to the station so I went to Mr. Gregory’s 
    to spend the night with her.  The rumor in Richmond today says that the enemy’s 
    cavalry has taken possession of the Central Railroad near Hanover Court House.  
    One day of my furlough gone!
    Saturday, June 27, 1863
    Spent a pleasant night at Mr. Gregory’s—got off on the train—found Major 
    General D.H. Hill and Major A.C. Avery on the train—got to Petersburg and 
    took lodgings at Jarrett’s Hotel.  Accompanied cousin Justina on a shopping 
    tour—afterwards saw my friend Charles R. Jones, got passports, got supper 
    (having an excellent dinner), got baggage checked, bought tickets and an hour 
    before time had bills paid and all on board ready for the night trip to Weldon.  
    Two days of my furlough gone.
    Sunday, June 28, 1863
    Left Petersburg at 9:00 last night and got to Weldon at 3:00 this morning.  
    Was much perplexed to get my charge and baggage all safely stowed away 
    at the Weldon Hotel.  Was under the disagreeable necessity of waiting at 
    Weldon until 5:00—only two hours but two hours at WELDON!!  Just think of 
    it !!  Finally got tickets and had baggage checked and at 5:00 my charge and 
    I finally got to Raleigh at 12:30 p.m. and was mortified to find that we would 
    have to wait at Raleigh until 1:00 in the morning, there being no evening train 
    to Salisbury on Sunday.  Cousin Justina and I resolved to make the best of 
    a bad bargain (a bad one, cousin Justina says, because we traveled on 
    Sunday), put up at Yarbrough’s (where the polite and gentlemanly-?-clerk 
    wanted to charge us for dinner whether we ate a morsel of it or not).  We 
    took a stroll through capitol square and around the city—got supper and 
    went to the fine Baptist Church where we heard splendid music by the choir 
    and organ and an excellent sermon by the pastor Rev. Mr. Skinner.  We 
    then returned to the hotel and settled the bill and making arrangements to 
    be awakened at the proper time, retired to sleep.  Three days of my furlough 
    Monday, June 29, 1863
    In good time got all arrangements made and together with my party, was 
    safely seated on the North Central train.  At 1:00 we started for Salisbury 
    where we arrived at 1:30 p.m.  Cousin Justina concluded to remain in 
    Salisbury tonight and go home tomorrow.  I saw several old acquaintances, 
    got on the west train and was soon whirling towards home where I arrived a 
    little after 3:00 and was welcomed by the servants with the warmest 
    demonstrations of joy.  I can by no means realize the fact that two long years 
    have elapsed since my eyes last rested upon these familiar scenes.  To me, 
    it seems but the other day that I was here.  Here are the same servants, the 
    same grove of oaks, the same fences just as I left apparently without a single 
    change having taken place.  It is a remarkable fact that not a single grown up 
    servant has died on either the home or river plantations.  I spent the evening 
    with Dr. Albert Powe who is now and for the past 18 months has resided here.
    Tuesday, June 30, 1863
    This morning after writing some letters, I intended going to my grandfather’s 
    but was prevented by rain.  Cousin Justina came up this evening.  Dr. Powe 
    and I went out to the road to meet her.  I saw on the train Messrs. Julius 
    Simonton and Sidney Miller of Statesville. General Marshal Lovell was on the 
    train.  I saw and was introduced to Rev. G.D. Parks who lives within sight of 
    this place.  He was for some time pastor of the Third Creek Church but has 
    almost entirely quit preaching. The present pastor of the Third Creek Church 
    is a Rev. Mr. Brackett, said to be a young minister.  I have not yet seen him.  
    Late in the evening, cousin Justina and Dr. Powe rode down to see Mrs. Knox 
    who is very low—in truth not expected by her physician to survive—with 
    typhoid fever—a little after dark they returned—there was no important news 
    in the papers today.  No further particulars about Lee or from below the 
    peninsula.  An old Negro of Mr. Waddell’s, Uncle Peter, the miller, died last 
    night and was buried today.  Many of the servants from here attended the 
    funeral.  This evening it cleared off and tonight the moon is shedding its bright 
    light upon the earth from a clear sky.  I trust it may remain so as it will assist 
    in preserving the splendid wheat crop and allow me to visit my friends.
    The Landmark, March 10, 1924
    Wednesday, July 1, 1863
    This morning I rode up to my grandfather’s and staying until the train time in 
    the evening; when I took the train for Statesville.  Took lodgings at the 
    “Simonton House” and wrote a not to a young lady acquaintance soliciting 
    permission to call upon her—got a favorable reply—went—had a quite pleasant
    time and at 10:00 returned to the hotel.  There I met Lt. E.V. Harris of our 
    regiment who is also on furlough. We took a room together.  “Spee” (Lt. Harris’ 
    nickname) told me all he has seen and done and then we confided ourselves to 
    the tender mercies of Morpheus.
    Thursday, July 2, 1863
    We awakened quite early.  Lt. Harris and I took the Charlotte train—got off—
    walked five miles to my mother’s—took everyone by surprise.  Mother has 
    been very sick—slowly recovering—is able to walk about.  I shall not soon 
    forget the warm reception of my mother and sisters.  Stepfather had gone to 
    Statesville—returned in the evening—saw little brother Gillie for the first time.
    Friday, July 3, 1863
    Went out to help father finish reaping his wheat and rye.  Worked pretty 
    hard until noon.  Rested in the evening.  Mother and I went over to see a 
    child who is sick.  Got back before sundown.
    Saturday, July 4, 1863
    Remained at the house with mother till forenoon.  At 3:00 started for the
    station.  Had a very warm walk.  Got there too soon and had to wait until 
    7:00.  Got to Statesville about dark and took lodgings at the “Simonton 
    House”.  Saw some old acquaintances.
    Sunday, July 5, 1863
    Slept late.  Went to church and heard Rev. W.W. Pharr.  After dinner 
    attended a funeral service by the same minister at L.Q. Sharpe’s.  Mrs. 
    Sharpe—an aged lady of four score and four years—mother of L. Quincy 
    Sharpe, Esq.—died yesterday and tonight a party of gentlemen and ladies 
    had been made to sit up with the deceased.  I accompanied a lady 
    acquaintance there at 1:00 at night and, with others, remained.  Mrs. 
    Davidson, another aged lady, was buried in the graveyard of the 
    Presbyterian Church this evening.
    Monday, July 6, 1863
    Got breakfast at Mr. Sharpe’s to whose residence I had conducted my lady 
    friend. Visited the churchyard—saw the monument to Lt. Jos. C. White—
    visited cousin Mollie Flemming—got my ticket—saw my friend Capt. J.G. 
    Knox just as the train started—got home and found all well—since I left Mrs. 
    Knox, mother of Capt. J.G. Knox, has died.  She died on Wednesday
    evening, July 1.   Had quite a hard rain in the evening.
    Tuesday, July 7, 1863
    Remained within doors employed in writing until the train came.  Went to 
    Statesville to meet some friends.  Had a hard rain—put up at the “Simonton 
    Wednesday, July 8, 1863
    In Statesville.  Pleasant time.  Got up late and got a good breakfast.  P
    lunked down $3 for lodging and breakfast.  Wrote a note to a young lady 
    acquaintance, Miss J------ C----- and received a polite note in return.  Spent 
    the morning VERY pleasantly with her—was sorry the train came so soon.  
    Got aboard, stopped at cousin J. F. Chambers.  Had a good dinner and was 
    presented with a nice uniform coat by cousin Joe.  Got the mail.  Rumors of 
    a great battle at Gettysburg, Pa.  Our arms victorious.  There are rumors 
    that Col. Avery of N.C. was killed.  Whether it was Col. C.M. Avery or I.E. 
    Avery not stated.  Cousin Mary very much distressed in consequence—
    drove her down home, that is, to cousin P.B. Chambers.  We found cousin 
    Justina in great anxiety.  Hooker has given up command of the Federal Army 
    of the Potomac. General Meade succeeds and was in command in the recent 
    engagement.  It was fought on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd inst.  Dispatches are 
    vague and unsatisfactory.  The conflict took place at or near Gettysburg, Pa.  
    Had a very heavy rain fall hard tonight.  Washed away fences and plantation 
    bridges.  Injured the bottom corn.
    The Landmark, March 13, 1924
    Monday, July 7, 1863
    Confirmation of yesterday’s rumor—Vicksburg capitulated.
    (Transcriber’s note—the rest of the July 7 entry, July 9-11 are illegible.)
    Sunday, July 12, 1863
    Met mother(?) at grandfather’s and went in the buggy to attend church at 
    Statesville with Uncle Ebeneezer.  After the sermon was over, a heavy rain 
    came on and caused a great many to have to stay in the church for some 
    time.  Among these were some lady friends with whom I spent the time very 
    pleasantly.  Uncle Ebeneezer and I came to grandfather’s.
    Monday, July 13, 1863
    Took my leave of my grandfather and Uncle Ruth and Uncle Ebeneezer and 
    I walked down to cousin Joseph Chambers and after stopping there a short 
    while came on over here.  Owing to the great sadness in the family consequent 
    upon the death of Isaac E. Avery, cousin Mary and Justina have concluded to 
    go to their father’s (Col. I.T. Avery’s in Burke) for a few days.  I accompanied 
    cousin Justina out and onto the cars.  Shortly after, I was surprised to see
     cousin Joe and Mary drive up.  The train had refused to stop at their house 
    and cousin Mary was of course, left behind.  After staying a short while, they
     returned and resolved to try again tomorrow.
    Tuesday, July 11, 1863
    This morning I was busy making final preparations for return.  At 11:30 the
     train came and bidding a hasty goodbye to Uncle Ebeneezer and Jordan I 
    was on my way.  Uncle Curtis(?) came on with me to Rowan Mills.  Captain 
    Joe C. Knox and Lt. J.P.(?) Burke got on at Mrs. Knox’s and will accompany 
    me the entire trip.  We got to Salisbury at little after noon and found we would 
    have to stay there until 9:00 tonight.  Salisbury is quite a dry place.  I saw 
    John L. Lyerly, Dan(?) Boyle, a nephew(?) of Major Cornelius Boyle, under 
    whom I served so long on provost guard.  I saw Messrs. Thomas Burke and 
    John Dickey(?) Johnston.  I took supper at Michael Brown’s.  Got with my 
    friends Knox and Burke and we started on our journey.
    Wednesday, July 15-July 19 are illegible
    July 20, 1863
    Remained quietly in camp until nearly sundown when my company was 
    ordered to relieve a company of the 24th N.C.R., which was on picket two 
    miles absent.  (Balance of this entry illegible).
    July 21, 1863
    Two years ago today the Battle of Manassas was fought.  (Balance of entry 
    July 22, 1863
    We had drill both morning and evening.  We hear no news of particular 
    interest from any quarter.
    July 23, 1863
    This morning we had very heavy rain but it cleared away soon after noon.  
    Had company drill morning and evening.  Lt. Thompson went to town.  No 
    news of any consequence from the armies.
    Friday, July 24, 1863
    Had battalion drill in the morning and company drill in the evening.  In the 
    interval between drills and after they were over, time passed away as usual.  
    We have no news from any quarter.  The day was exceedingly warm—the 
    night cooled by a strong breeze.
    Saturday, July 25, 1863
    Company drill in the morning.  Sent up application for a ten day furlough for 
    Corp. Julius A. Lyerly.  Recommended Sgt. J.T. Ray and Private W.A. Nash 
    for recruiting service.  In the evening Ray and Nash, together with two from 
    each company in the regiment, started on recruiting service.  At night, Lyerly’s 
    application came back, approved. Had no drill in the afternoon.  Had dress 
    parade.  He no religious services tonight owing to our chaplain’s having  gone 
    to Richmond this morning on business.  He returned too late to have prayer 
    meeting; bringing along a lot of books, tracts, etc. 
    Sunday, July 26, 1863
    Corp. Lyerly started home on his furlough this morning.  We had company 
    inspection. At 11:00 Mr. Nicholson, our chaplain, preached at the headquarters 
    of the regiment.  Again at 4:30 he delivered another discourse.  During the day 
    I read the tracts entitled “I Can Feel”
    And “Delay: or Now Is The Appointed Time” and a long book furnished by the 
    chaplain called “Force of Truth” by Thomas Scott, the great communicator, 
    which I found quite interesting.  Lt. Bowers and Sgt. Geisler went to the city 
    to attend services.
    Monday, July 27, 1863
    Had battalion drill in the morning.  Rained all evening.  Got orders to move in 
    the midst of it.  Had to tear down our flies and go to Petersburg.  About 
    sundown we took the train for Garysburg. 
    Tuesday, July 28, 1863
    Got to Garysburg, N.C., about 12:00.  Four companies (D, F, C, K) under 
    Lt. Col. Flemming were sent on to Weldon to take a boat and go down to 
    Roanoke.  About 12:00 they came back, the order for their going down the 
    river being revoked.  As soon as they arrived we started on a march eastward 
    from Garysburg towards Jackson, the county seat of Northampton.  We had 
    almost reached Boone’s Mill within three miles of the village, when we were 
    suddenly met with orders to hurry on as the enemy had chased General M.
    W. Ransom very closely from Jackson and were about to attack a part of the 
    24th Regiment which was on the breastworks at the hull in our front.
    Fight at Boone’s Mill
    Just before reaching the breastworks and just after completing our loading 
    (which was done as we marched along), Captain Davis’ company (F) and 
    mine (C) were ordered to go back some distance, taking a road along to 
    Faison’s Mill, several miles down the tract, and to defend the passage of the 
    stream there to prevent any flank movement by the enemy.  While on our way 
    we heard the artillery open behind us.  It was kept up with considerable vigor 
    for some time.  The sounds of the cannon were mingled with the rattle of 
    musketry.  Captain John C. Pegram, General Ransom’s A.A. General, 
    conducted us to our position at Faison’s Mill, where we found Captain 
    (illegible-Cuily?) of the 24th with his company.  Soon after our arrival a heavy 
    rain set in which lasted until about 10:00.  Captain Davis being in command, 
    after consultation with some officers, concluded, notwithstanding the rain, to 
    put out one third of the men on watch.  The three companies were then divided 
    into three reliefs, one of which being placed on post, the remainder sought 
    shelter, rested and sleep the best way they could.
    Wednesday, July 29, 1863
    Last night about midnight, Capt. Pegram arrived and changed our position.  
    It was still wet and showers of rain fell occasionally during the night.  However, 
    this morning came and we were not disturbed(?) as we certainly expected to be 
    at early dawn.  The weather continued showery all day.  In the morning we were 
    ordered to proceed toward Jackson and join our regiment there.  We went only a 
    few miles when we encountered our pickets, who had orders from General 
    Ransom for us to halt and await further orders.  Soon we were ordered back to 
    the mill.  In the evening, we were relieved by Major Taylor of the 35th with 
    several companies.  We proceeded to the camp of our regiment and found 
    Captain Connor of Company I had one man killed and several stunned by a 
    shell I the fight of yesterday evening.  
    Thursday, July 20, 1863
    After a sound sleep last night we were quite refreshed.  This morning the 
    brigade proceeded to Jackson where we remained for some time.  We then 
    came back about one mile and bivouacked.  About the middle of the evening, 
    however we were again ordered to move.  We had a hard march of it but the air 
    had been cooled by the recent rains and the men stood it tolerably well.  About 
    10:00 we halted at Yulee’s Cross Roads about four miles north of Garysburg, 
    threw up picket and composed ourselves to sleep as best we could.
    The Landmark, March 20, 1924
    Friday, July 31, 1863
    Had reveille very late.  After breakfast, we moved camp a few hundred yards.  
    We slept and rested from the fatigue of our late march.  Nothing else of interest 
    occurred today.  Our camp is not pleasant, the pines not giving a heavy shade.  
    Saturday, August 1, 1863
    Did nothing but lay around and hunt for the best shade.  The day was 
    excessively hot.
    Sunday, August 2, 1863
    Had two discourses by our chaplain, Mr. Nicholson, one on the morning at 
    camp and one in the evening at the residence of Widow Garrett.  Weather 
    still very warm.
    Monday, Aug. 3, 1863
    Spent the day in search of shade and reading tracts.
    Tuesday, Aug. 4, 1863
    Just as yesterday.  Nothing new.
    Wednesday, Aug. 5, 1863
    Spent the forenoon as usual.  In the evening, my company was sent to relieve 
    Captain Black’s (D) on picket.  Found excellent water and a tolerably shady 
    place to stay.
    Thursday, Aug. 6, 1863
    Ordered back to camp this morning in order to move camp.  When Company 
    I came in , the regiment proceeded to Garysburg.  There we got orders and 
    proceeded westward and took up camp near the other regiments about two 
    miles from the station.  Got our baggage from Petersburg.
    Friday, Aug. 7, 1863
    Had battalion drill this morning—the hottest drill, I think, I ever attended.  So
     warm and oppressive was it that the colonel soon brought us back to camp.  
    Major Chambers and Captain Moore got a furlough and started home in the 
    evening.  Had company drill at 5:00 in the evening.  I was detailed as “officer 
    of the day” or rather “night.”
    Saturday, Aug. 8, 1863
    Having been on guard duty last night, I was excused from battalion drill in the 
    morning.  Had no drill in the evening.  The men were permitted to wash and 
    clean up their guns.  I occupied myself in reading most of the time.  Got pay 
    this evening for the month of July from Captain Durham.
    Sunday, Aug. 9, 1863
    Had inspection this morning conducted by the colonel in his headquarters.  
    My company received high praise for the conduct of its arms.  After inspection 
    we had Divine services by Mr. Willis, minister here on a visit.  Again at 5:00 
    he delivered another discourse.  I spent the day in attending services and 
    reading “Baxter’s Call”(?).  Corp. J.A. Lyerly who has been on a furlough, 
    returned today.  He brought some boxes for his company containing good 
    things from the folks at home.  
    Monday, Aug. 10, 1863
    Had battalion drill this morning.  Remained in camp the rest of the day 
    reading and writing.  At 5:00 we moved camp to the field where we have 
    been drilling.  Our wagons with our tents arrived this evening from Petersburg.  
    We have been without them just two weeks today.
    Tuesday, Aug. 11, 1863
    The men went to work and built excellent brush arbors this morning.  A little 
    past two we received orders to march to Weldon.  It was provoking to have to 
    leave the camp just when we had set it out so well.  It was the hottest and 
    most oppressive march to Weldon that I have ever experienced.  We lay 
    around until sundown when Col. McAfee moved us to a nice place to camp 
    and we lay down to snatch a little rest.
    Wednesday, Aug. 12, 1863
    Last night at 11:00 we were roused up and took the train for Tarboro where 
    we arrived at daylight this morning.  We were taken into a grove where we 
    remained all day, cooking, sleeping, etc. Col. McAfee went to Greenville this 
    evening.  We find Tarboro to be a very beautiful place—excelling everything 
    as have seen in N.C.  This evening a heavy rain came on and the men 
    scattered around to find shelter wherever they could.  Lt. Bowers and I got to 
    a kitchen where we slept soundly.
    Thursday, August 13, 1863
    The regiment collected at roll call at the camp ground.  Watermelons in 
    abundance were to be had today.  Lt. Col. Flemming who had been very sick 
    at Garysburg, arrived today.  Our wagons with our baggage arrived this evening.  
    We put up our tents immediately as rain was imminent. 
    Friday, Aug. 14, 1863
    This morning, Sgt. Ray and W.A. Nash who have been home on recruiting 
    services, bringing with them no recruits but a large number of boxes for the 
    company.  Lt. Krider and I each got a large box—my good Aunt Ruth send 
    me a large number of apples, peaches, beans, cabbage, Irish potatoes, 
    cucumbers, honey, etc.  Mr. Nicholson, our chaplain, invited us down this 
    evening to witness the ceremony of immersion.  The ceremony took place 
    at the Tar River at the town.  I witnessed it for the first time in my life.
    The Landmark, March 24, 1924
    Saturday, Aug. 15, 1863
    Remained quietly at camp until about 10:00 when orders were received to 
    march to Rocky Mount.  At 11:00 we started.  It was exceedingly hot but 
    the colonel marched very slowly and rested frequently.  We passed through 
    the greatest corn growing country it has ever been my fortune to see.  After 
    getting within two miles of the station, we bivouacked.
    Sunday, Aug. 16, 1863
    This morning shortly after sunrise, we started and soon reached Rocky 
    Mount where we camped in a grove of large oaks to await further orders.  
    The greater part of the afternoon was taken up in arranging camp.  In the 
    evening our chaplain assisted by two Methodist ministers had religious 
    services.  Rev. Mr. Simpson preached an excellent sermon which was not 
    without effect.
    Monday, Aug. 17, 1863
    Occupied myself in the forenoon by writing letters and the remainder of the 
    day in reading.  We remained quietly in camp all day.  Julius A. Elliott of 
    my company who was sent to the hospital at Weldon, N.C., about the first 
    of the month, returned to the company for duty this evening.  Had services 
    tonight by our chaplain, Mr. Nicholson.  He had expected Mr. Handron, the 
    Methodist presiding elder of the district to be present but he was not.  
    Cause unknown.
    Tuesday, Aug. 18, 1863
    Received clothing for the men and issued it to them.  Was busy in 
    attending to this business and reading all day.  This evening, I was detailed 
    as “officer of the night”, Lt. Lytle of Company A as “officer of the guard”.
    Wed., Aug. 19, 1863
    Last night I went the rounds twice.  Just as I finished my last round about 
    half an hour before daybreak, I received an order to send men to tell the 
    companies on picket to come in and also to have the long roll beat.  At 
    sunrise we were at the depot ready to take the train. The train for Weldon 
    passed.  We got on our train and after waiting for the train for Wilmington to 
    pass, we started for Weldon where we arrived at 11:00.  We camped about a 
    mile west of the town on the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad.
    Thursday, Aug. 20, 1863
    Our wagons with baggage and tents arrived about noon today.  No news of 
    very much importance in yesterday’s Richmond papers.  The enemy is working 
    away at Charleston.  Lt. Bowers’ wife came this evening.
    Friday, Aug. 21, 1863
    This is the day appointed by President Davis for fasting, humiliation and prayer.  
    May the prayers of the righteous all over the land be this day to Him who rules 
    all things and who is the dispenser of “every good and perfect gift”.  May He put
     it into the hearts of our enemies to see the great injustice they do in waging 
    this cruel war upon us—to be willing to at least leave us alone to live under a 
    government of our own choice.  With all this, enable us, Lord, to say as a nation 
    “may our will be thine, oh Lord”.  Our chaplain, Mr. Nicholson, preached to us 
    this evening, and held a prayer meeting in the evening.  For the first time in my 
    life, I endeavored to observe a fast day as I should.  Lt. Bowers is staying in 
    town with his wife.
    The Landmark, March 27, 1924
    Saturday, Aug. 22, 1863
    The men were principally engaged in washing and cleaning for the inspection
     tomorrow.  Nothing else of record took place.  Sgt. Bailey of Company E 
    arrived tonight.
    Sunday, Aug. 23, 1863
    This is a beautiful day.  We had inspection this morning by the colonel.  We 
    had two discourses—one in the morning and one in the evening, by our chaplain.  
    I spent the remainder of the day reading “James Anxious Enquirer”.  The wives 
    of T.L. Thompson, George Ritchie, and James H. Robinson of my company 
    arrived tonight on the train from Raleigh.  Their husbands rejoiced to see them.
    Monday, Aug. 24, 1863
    This morning, we moved camp to the north side of the Roanoke near the camp 
    we left so suddenly when we went to Tarboro.  This evening we learn that the 
    enemy has been able to injure Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor and they 
    demand its surrender.  They have also thrown shells into the city.  Ransom 
    Sides of my company who has been home on a short furlough, returned tonight.
    Tuesday, Aug. 25, 1863
    Had drill both morning and evening and dress parade yesterday evening after 
    drill.  The colonel requested the company commanders to meet him at his 
    headquarters after parade.  His talk concerned the spirit of dissatisfaction 
    among the troops and urged us to use all our efforts to render the men more 
    contented.  Major Chambers who has been on furlough returned.
    Wednesday, Aug. 26, 1863
    Company drill in the morning and battalion drill in the evening.  Lt. Krider and 
    I went over this morning to the 56th Regiment and heard Rev. T.C. (last name
     illegible) deliver a discourse. Tonight I was detailed as “officer of the night” and 
    Lt. Sherrill of Company I as “officer of the guard”.  No news today from any 
    quarter.  Lt. Bowers and ten men from my company, together with a detail from 
    the regiment were on a work detail today.
    Thursday, Aug. 27, 1863
    Had company drill in the morning for which I was excused because I had been 
    on guard duty last night.  Had battalion drill in the evening.  Major Chambers 
    had a chill today and has been quite ill.  We learned by the Richmond papers 
    this evening of the death of Hon. John B. Floyd of Virginia, ex-governor, 
    ex-senator, ex-secretary of war for the U.S., ex-brigadier general of the 
    Virginia state troops.  He died on the 26th inst., at Abington, Va.  He has 
    for a long time been considered the best intellect not only in Virginia but of 
    the whole South.
    Friday, Aug. 28, 1863
    Had company drill in the morning and about 2:00 in the afternoon orders 
    came to be ready to move at a moment’s notice.  This prevented any drill in 
    the afternoon.
    Saturday, Aug. 29, 1863
    Had no drill today.  The men were permitted to wash.  I was busy writing all 
    day. Rev. C.S. Alexander, pastor of the Steel Creek Church in Mecklenburg 
    County, arrived here and preached for us tonight.
    Sunday, Aug. 30, 1863
    Had services in our camp in the morning, by Rev. Mr. Alexander and in the 
    evening by Rev. Mr. Faucette.  According to orders I made out a muster roll 
    of the company this evening.
    Monday, Aug. 31, 1863
    This is the last day of summer and was quite cold and disagreeable.  A 
    light but steady rain was falling during the greater part of the day.  This 
    morning I made out a muster roll, a duplicate of one made yesterday.  The 
    companies went out to drill this morning but the rain drove them in.  In the 
    evening, Lt. Col. Flemming mustered in the regiment.  Thus ends August 
    and the summer of 1863.
    Tuesday, Sept. 1, 1863
    I was sent off early this morning with a work party of 75 men to Weldon.  
    There were a detachment of all the brigade which are here now.  We were 
    kept pretty busy all day.
    Wednesday, Sept. 2, 1863
    Had company drill this morning but I did not go.  Made out a payroll today.  
    Had battalion drill in the evening and upon return from that we found that our 
    band which had been under instruction at Richmond, had arrived.
    Thursday, Sept. 3, 1863
    Had company drill both morning and evening and dress parade after evening 
    drill.  Finished my payrolls and got the greater part of the company to sign
    Friday, Sept. 4, 1863
    Had company drill in the morning and battalion drill in the afternoon.  The 
    band went off to practice for a few weeks longer.  William A. Thompson of
     my company joined us this morning.  Abraham Nash of my company got 
    a special furlough for ten days and started for home this evening.
    Saturday, Sept. 5, 1863
    The men were excused from all drills in order to wash and clean up their 
    guns.  Nothing new.
    Sunday, Sept. 6, 1863
    Had services by our chaplain morning and evening.  The day was quite 
    Monday, Sept. 7, 1863
    On account of sore throat I got excused from drills today.  After drill having 
    received the money from Capt. Durham, I paid off the men of my company.  
    We had considerable showers of rain this evening which prevented drill.  
    We had dress parade.
    Tuesday, Sept. 8, 1863
    Again on account of sore throat I was excused from drill.  There was 
    company drill both morning and evening.  This evening, we heard of the 
    evacuation by our forces of Morris Island in Charleston harbor, including 
    Fort Wagner.  This morning, companies C and D were sent to Weldon on
     fatigue duty.  I, having been unwell for several days and being no better
    today and besides Capt. Black being the senior officer I did not attend the 
    work.  Bennings, Georgia, brigade passed through today on their way, as 
    they say, to Bragg’s army.
    Thursday, Sept. 10, 1863
    Had company drill in the morning and battalion drill in the evening.  This 
    evening we received three of the Richmond papers, with an account of the 
    night attack by the enemy upon Fort Sumter in which they were repulsed.  
    Our forces captured 18 commissioned officers and a large number of men 
    and several stands of colors.  (balance of this day’s entry is illegible.)
    Friday, Sept. 11, 1863
    There was company drill in the morning and battalion drill in the evening. 
    I have a chill and have been quite unwell.  Rev. Mr. Andrews preached 
    tonight as he did last evening to a large assemblage.  Lt. Bowers has been 
    on furlough and has returned to us.
    The Landmark, March 31, 1924
    Saturday, Sept. 12, 1863
    There was no drill today—the men were permitted to wash and clean up 
    their guns for inspection tomorrow morning.  I remained about my tent 
    taking medicine to prevent the return of chills and was fortunate enough
    to escape one today.  Tonight Rev. Mr. Andrews preached again to a large 
    assemblage.  He got a pretty large number of mourners.
    Sunday, Sept. 13, 1863
    This morning, a cloud came up and we had a considerable rain.  This 
    shortened the ceremony of inspection considerably.  It also prevented 
    religious services.  Capt. Davis of Company F, who for some time has 
    been on court martial in Petersburg, came back today, the court being 
    dissolved in consequence of Jenkins’ brigade being ordered away.
    Sunday, Sept. 14, 1863
    Company drill both morning and evening.  Nothing of consequence 
    happened today.  John Geiser of my company, who has been on furlough, 
    returned tonight.  Mr. Andrews preached again to a large assemblage tonight.
    Monday, Sept. 15, 1863
    Company drill morning and evening.  Got some clothing and issued it to 
    the men.  Rev. Mr. McNair, chaplain of the 24th N.C., preached today.  
    Today Lt. John N. Thompson got a furlough for 15 days and Corp. Wm. 
    H. Thompson got one for ten days at home.  They started tonight but will 
    not be reported as absent until tomorrow.  No news of importance today.
    Wednesday, Sept. 16, 1863
    Ordered to be ready to march.  In consequence of this we had no drill.  
    Nothing took place of sufficient interest to note.  Lt. Krider was detailed 
    on brigade guard.
    Thursday, Sept. 17, 1863
    Had company drill in the morning and battalion drill by Major Chambers 
    in the evening.  It was generally cloudy today with a few showers of rain.  
    After the evening drill the rain was more constant—so mush so that dress 
    parade was dispensed with.  No news of much importance in the papers 
    except for the particulars of a cavalry fight in Culpepper County, Virginia.
    Friday, Sept. 18, 1863
    Rain prevented drill today.  In the evening, Lt. Col. Flemming started out 
    on battalion drill but dress parade but dismissed it on account of rain. Col. 
    McAfee who has been home on furlough, returned this morning.  The papers 
    contained little news today.
    Saturday, Sept. 19, 1863
    This has been a cold, rainy, unpleasant day.  There could, of course, be no 
    drills.  The acceptance of Major Chambers resignation came this evening.  
    The state of affairs at home rendered his resignation necessary.  It is with 
    sorrow that I now give up my greatest friend in the regiment.  I am glad, 
    however, on account of his family and his business.  His presence at home 
    is absolutely necessary.  May he be happy in the bosom of his beloved family.
    Sunday, Sept. 20, 1863
    This morning, Rev. J. Rumple, pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Salisbury,
     N.C., preached in the 25th Regiment.  Major P. B. Chambers, whose 
    resignation has been accepted, started home today. The Rev. Mr. Rumple 
    preached to our regiment this evening.  His discourse tonight was particularly 
    forcible and entertaining.  The mornings and evenings are becoming quite cool.
    Monday, September 21, 1863
    Last night was quite cold and this morning “Jack Frost” made his appearance.  
    This morning, as last night, was quite clear.  Company drill in the morning and 
    battalion drill by Lt. Col. Flemming in the evening.  Lt. Krider of my company 
    got a furlough today for 15 days and started home.  Col. McAfee, Capt. 
    Durham, A.Q.M., and Captain Davis of Company F, started to General S.D. 
    Ramseur’s wedding this evening.  General Ramseur was the first colonel of 
    this regiment.  Mr. Rumple preached again tonight and baptized four persons.
    Tuesday, Sept. 22, 1863
    Great battle in the west.  Victory claimed.  Yesterday evening the brigade 
    was placed under marching orders and in consequence there was no drill 
    today.  This evening the Richmond papers announced that general Braxton 
    Bragg has been fighting the enemy two days and ahs driven everything before 
    him so far.  The enemy fought stubbornly and still confronts our forces.  The 
    loss on our side has been heavy—especially in officers.  Two recruits for my 
    company—David and John McCandless—arrived tonight.  Mr. Nicholson 
    preached tonight.  Mr. Rumple has gone on to Lee’s army.
    Wednesday, Sept. 23, 1863
    The reports from the west claim a victory. General Bragg’s own dispatch says
     “the victory is complete, and the cavalry is pursuing.”  General Hood lost a 
    leg and some reports say he is dead.
    Thursday, Sept. 24, 1863
    Had company drill in the morning and again in the evening.  Dress parade in 
    the evening.  Some additional particulars of the battle in the west.  General 
    Hood died in consequence of his wounds after the amputation was performed.  
    Breckenridge’s Division is said to have lost 1,300 out of 1,600.  W. A. 
    Thompson of my company started home today on a special furlough for ten 
    days to get a place for his family to stay.  E.C. Lentz started yesterday on 
    a special furlough for the same length of time to accompany his wife and 
    dead child home, his family being on a visit to him.  His child sickened and 
    died after three days’ illness Tuesday morning.  Thus there are absent three 
    men from my company on special leaves of absence.  No important news 
    from any place except Tennessee.
    Friday, Sept. 25, 1863
    Company drill both morning and evening.  Dress parade in the evening.  
    The news from the west is that the enemy has been driven north of the 
    Tennessee River and that General Bragg is supposed to have taken 
    possession of Chattanooga. It is also reported that General Hood is not 
    dead.  No important news from any other quarter.  There were religious 
    services by Mr. Nicholson tonight.
    Saturday, Sept. 26, 1863
    No drill today—the men were allowed to wash and prepare their arms for 
    inspection tomorrow.  Captain Davis and Durham returned today.  General 
    Ramseur did not get marriage in consequence of an expected battle on 
    the Rapidan.  A. Nash of my company who has been home on a special 
    furlough returned this morning, bringing with him William A. Rice as a 
    recruit.  Rice was examined and received by Dr. Ruffin.  Had dress parade.
    Sunday, Sept. 27, 1863
    Had a regular inspection this morning by Col. McAfee.  Had religious 
    services at our regiment in the forenoon—at the 24th at 2:00 had the 
    ordinance of baptism administered.  At night there were again services 
    at the 24th Regiment.  This has been a clear, pleasant day. I occupied 
    my time after services in reading several religious papers and some of 
    Spurgeon’s sermons.  We had dress parade in the evening.  Our band 
    attracts a considerable crowd of spectators there being no other band 
    in the regiment.
    The Landmark, April 3, 1924
    Monday, Sept. 28, 1863
    Had company drill in the morning and battalion drill in the evening by 
    Col. McAfee.  After the evening drill, we had dress parade.  A Rev. Mr. 
    Rugland preached tonight.  I was engaged in reading Macaulay’s History 
    of England in my leisure time.
    Tuesday, Sept. 29, 1863  
    Had company drill in the morning and battalion drill in the evening.  On 
    account of sore throat I excused myself from the drill.  All my leisure time 
    today was devoted to company business.  No news from any quarter.  The 
    day has been clear and pleasant.
    Wednesday, Sept. 30, 1863
    Had battalion drill by Col. McAfee this morning and company drill in the 
    evening.  During the time between drills I was busy attending to company 
    business.  I made out a monthly return and a report of armament of the 
    company besides several other matters being attended to.  We got a pretty 
    good supply of newspapers of various kinds today but they contained no 
    news of any consequence.  Everything now seems to be quiet.  The great 
    artillery fight which has been which has been going on in Charleston so long 
    a time seems to be in a lull for a while.  Bragg and Rosecrans are resting 
    after their last sanguinary encounter.  Lee and Meade are watching each 
    other across the Rapidan and there seems to be no immediate prospect of 
    a raid on our front.  The Yankee prisoners captured in north Georgia are 
    passing Weldon by the train load heading for Richmond.  Corp. W.H. 
    Thompson of my company who has been home on a furlough, returned today.
    Thursday, Oct. 1, 1863
    Had battalion drill by Col. McAfee in the morning and evening.  The drills 
    were pretty severe, the colonel making us “double quick” the greater portion 
    of the time.  I succeeded in getting furlough for ten days at home for Sgt. 
    Richard A. Stone and Private Noah Kitchie.  They left this evening.  No 
    important news from any quarter today.  The Yankee prisoners are sill 
    passing on their way to Richmond to be exchanged.
    Friday, Oct. 2, 1863 
    A slight shower of rain this morning prevented drill.  Why we did not drill 
    in the evening I do not know—probably on account of the strong wind that 
    was blowing. The Rev. Mr. Murkland, a Presbyterian minister from Iredell 
    County, preached for us at 1:30.  Mr. Nicholson, our chaplain, started home 
    on a 15 day furlough this evening.  Mr. Murkland preached at the 24th tonight.  
    He is a Scotchman and has much of his own language in speaking.  His 
    discourse this evening was one of the most interesting it has been my 
    fortune to hear.
    Saturday, Oct. 3, 1863
    Had company drill in the morning after which the men were permitted to 
    wash and clean their guns for inspection tomorrow.  Corp. Mauney of my 
    company received a detail this evening to go home for a pair of scales for 
    the commissary of the brigade.  We had dress parade this evening.
    Sunday, Oct. 4, 1863
    Had company inspection.  No religious services in our regiment today.  Lt. 
    Col. Flemming started home on furlough today.  Had dress parade by Capt. 
    Moore this evening.
    Monday, Oct. 5, 1863
    Had company drill both morning and evening.  No news of any consequence.  
    Had dress parade.
    The Landmark, April 7, 1924
    Had company drill this morning—at noon the adjutant read a circular directing 
    the commanders of companies to have their companies fully armed and 
    equipped with their best clothes on by 1:30 to march to Garysburg to received 
    President Davis.  At the appointed time we marched to Garysburg, our band 
    moving in front and frequently playing.  Just as we got to the village, we heard 
    the train and the brigade was quickly formed along the railroad and, as the train 
    came slowly along, presented arms. The band played appropriate music.  The 
    President himself stood uncovered on the platform of one of the cars.  After the
     train passed we marched back to camp.  The colonel and adjutant rode to 
    Weldon and heard the President made a short speech.  We had dress parade 
    this eveing at which the band played.  A Rev. Mr. Ferguson preached at 10:00 
    am and again at night.  He was a young Presbyterian minister.
    Wednesday, Oct. 7, 1863
    Had battalion drill both morning and evening by Col. McAfee.  Was busy between 
    drills arranging company business.  Was detailed as “officer of the night” to 
    succeed Captain Petty who was placed under arrest by the colonel because 
    of his mis-arrangement of the guard.
    Thursday, Oct. 8, 1863
    Being on guard duty last night, I was excused from duty today.  This morning 
    a slight rain prevented drill and dress parade.  I was busy today issuing 
    company clothing.  Tonight William A. Simpson(?) of my company, who has 
    been at home on furlough, returned.
    Friday, Oct. 9, 1863
    Had company drill both morning and evening.  Lt. John N. Thompson, of my 
    company returned tonight bringing with him conscripts:
    George Al- - - nt (partially illegible)
    Andrew Menis
    Joseph C. Gru- - - (partially illegible)
    (first name illegible - - - ell) R. Ratts or Rotts (partially illegible)
    H. Rogers
    John Strikeleather
    Saturday, Oct. 10, 1863
    Read “Rules and Articles of War” to  my company instead of drill.  After the 
    drill time was over the men were allowed to wash and clean up their guns for 
    inspection.  Had drill parade on which I took my recruits.  My company fared 
    favorably with most of the companies.
    Sunday, Oct. 11, 1863
    Had company inspection in the morning after which Mr. Garlick, a minister, 
    preached to us.  Last night Lt. Thompson of my company was detailed on 
    brigade guard and Lt. Bowers the same.  Had dress parade with Captain Moore 
    in the evening.  This has been a beautiful day.  The nights are now pretty chilly 
    requiring good quantities of clothing and large fires.
    Monday, Oct. 12, 1863
    Had battalion drill in the morning with Col. McAfee and company drill in the 
    evening.  Nothing else of consequence today.
    Tuesday, Oct. 13, 1863
    Had company drill both morning and evening. Had dress parade in the evening 
    at which I was most unexpectedly called from the ranks to command parade. 
    No news of any consequence in the papers.  There are rumors that Meade is 
    falling back behind Lee.
    The Landmark, April 10, 1924
     October 14, 1863
    A shower of rain prevented drill in the morning.  Had company drill in the 
    evening. No news today.
    October 15, 1863
    Captain George W. Lytle, Lt. D.S. Barrett(?) Garrett(?) and I being appointed 
    to a board of survey to meet at Garysburg at 10:00 today, we went over this 
    morning.  After condemning eleven barrels and 28 pounds of flour and 90 
    pounds of bacon, we went to Weldon and spent the day.  After the train from 
    Petersburg arrived and we got the papers we came back to camp.  The 
    forenoon was cloudy and a heavy mist fell but the afternoon was more broken 
    and also quite warm.  The news or rather the rumor is that A.P. Hill is in the 
    rear of General Meade; that General Ewell has advanced as far as Manassas 
    Junction and captured a large quantities of commissary and quartermaster 
    stores and that in a cavalry fight near Warrenton we were successful and 
    captured 700 prisoners with their horses and arms.
    Friday, Oct. 16, 1863
    Prevented by rain from drill in the morning.  Had company drill and dress 
    parade in the evening.  Nothing of consequence in the way of news today.
    Saturday, Oct. 17, 1863
    Read “Rules and Articles of War” to my company and at the same time, by 
    request, to Company H also.  Was busy the remainder of the day in issuing 
    clothing to my company.  Had dress parade by Captain Moore this evening, 
    Col. McAfee having taken a flying visit to Raleigh. The regiment presented a 
    fine sight in the new uniforms.  Lt. Krider who has been at home on furlough, 
    returned tonight bringing with him the Rev. Walter W. Pharr, preacher of the 
    Presbyterian Church in Statesville.  Rev. Mr. Muirkland also arrived in the 
    regiment this evening.
    Sunday, Oct. 18, 1863
    Mr. Pharr preached to our regiment this morning after inspection.  In the evening 
    he preached to the 35th N.C.R.  Mr. Muirkland preached to the 25th and Rev. 
    Calvin Plyler, a Methodist minister and an old school teacher, preached to the 
    24th.  At night, Mr. Muirkland preached to the 24th and Rev. Mr. Plyler preached 
    to the 35th.  No services elsewhere.  The day was quite warm.  Tonight we hear 
    rumors of a battle between Lee and Meade.  So far the reports are in our favor.  
    It is said that we have captured 6,000 prisoners and were successful.  No news 
    from Charleston or the west.  There seems to be a calm everywhere but in Virginia.
    Monday, Oct. 19, 1863
    This morning, early, a heavy shower came on.  This excused us from drill in the 
    morning.  It cleared up in time for Mr. Muirkland to have services at 10:00.  He 
    left for home in the evening.  In the evening, we had battalion drill by Adjutant 
    Dinkins.  At night we had services by Rev. Walter W. Pharr.
    Tuesday, Oct. 20, 1863
    Had company drill in the morning and battalion drill in the evening by Col. 
    McAfee.  James M. Link of my company was discharged today on surgeon’s 
    certificate of disability.  He is and for the past 20 months, has been entirely 
    dumb.  Had dress parade after drill this evening.  Mr. Pharr preached to the 
    35th tonight.  When we returned from services we found that Mr. Nicholson, 
    our chaplain, who had been home on furlough, had returned.
    Wednesday, Oct. 21, 1863
    Had battalion drill by Col. McAfee both morning and evening.  Mr. Pharr
    preached to the 25th regiment in the morning.  Today I received five recruits:
    These from Sgt. Lindsay of Company K.  Mr. Pharr preached tonight to the 
    24th Regiment and, after services, he went to Weldon in order to take the train 
    for Raleigh in the morning on his way home.
    Thursday, Oct. 22, 1863
    I was sent off with 100 men to clear off a new camp ground which we finished 
    before 11:00.  There was battalion drill in the morning and in the evening we 
    moved our camp about a mile nearer Weldon.  We hear a rumor this evening 
    of a victory over Banks in Louisiana by General Taylor.
    Friday, Oct. 23, 1863
    Had battalion drill in the morning in which the colonel exercised us in preparation 
    to review.  In the evening we had review by Brigadier General M.W. Ransom.  
    This was a splendid affair the brigade making a fine appearance.  No further 
    news from the southwest in regard to General Taylor’s victory.
    Saturday, Oct. 24, 1863
    Last night it commenced to rain and continued with little intermission today.  
    This evening it has turned quite cold.  Of course there was no drill done today.  
    Tonight I was detailed as “officer of the night” but owing to the rain the guard 
    was released.  
    Sunday, Oct. 25, 1863
    Had no drill today.  The men were permitted to make their quarters as 
    comfortable as possible.  Had dress parade in the evening.
    The Landmark, April 14, 1924
     Tuesday, Oct. 27, 1863
    No drill today.  Adj. Dinkins was thrown from his horse this morning between 
    camp and Weldon and seriously hurt.  I learned this evening that he was not 
    supposed to be fatally injured.  Lt. Krider and I walked over to Weldon this 
    evening.  I have not felt well for several days.
    Wednesday, Oct. 28, 1863
    Had drill for the recruits after roll call.  Had company drill and dress parade in 
    the evening.  No news of any consequence from the different armies today.
    Thursday, Oct. 29, 1863
    This is election day in the army of N.C., for members of Congress. Four 
    districts are represented in our regiment—7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th.  The regular 
    vote was as follows:
    7th District, Company D, Christian, 41, Ashe, 12
    8th District, Companies B, C, F, G, H, I, and K, Lander, 115, Stancil, 2, 
    Ramsay, 222
    9th District, Company E, Smith, 70, Gaither, 1
    10th District, Company A, Logan, 38, Hyman, 5, Irvin, 1
    The two state senatorial districts in which there are vacancies to be filled at 
    this election are represented:  B & G, Harris, 30, Lee, 69; Companies H, I, K, 
    Thompson, 64, Hale, 39
    Friday, Oct. 30, 1863
    Had company drill both morning and evening.  Sgt. Ray and I made out a 
    muster and pay roll this morning.  In the evening, my company gave up all 
    their old guns and got new rifles with saber bayonets.  While we changing, 
    dress parade took place.  An order was read changing the manual of arms 
    from the musket to the rifle manual.  
    Saturday, Oct. 31, 1863
    Was busy all day arranging my ordnance and getting ammunition for my 
    recruits, etc., also finishing another muster and pay roll.  Mr. Ortho Lyerly 
    arrived this morning with a large lot of boxes for  my company.  A young 
    Freeze and the wife of his (Freeze’s) brother came with Mr. Lyerly.  We 
    received a notification today to hold our companies in readiness to march 
    at a moment’s notice.  Our destination is supposed to be Kinston.  In the 
    morning a slight rain prevented drill.
    Sunday, Nov. 1, 1863
    We awaited orders to move all day, but none came.  We (the officers) were 
    kept busy all day working at clothing and ordnance accounts.  The Rev. Mr. 
    Kennedy (a blind Presbyterian minister) and his brother (also a minister) visited
     today and the former preached.  
    Monday, Nov. 2, 1863
    This morning we were ordered to move and soon were at Weldon ready to 
    take the train for Kinston.  Just as we were getting on the train, I was handed
     my application for a 15 day furlough, properly approved.  I, however, concluded 
    to go on with the regiment to Goldsboro and there take the Central train for 
    Salisbury.  We arrived at Goldsboro a little after dark and, after taking leave of 
    my company, getting my pay from Capt. Durham, getting my passport and 
    supper, I was ready to take the train for Salisbury.
    Tuesday, Nov. 3, 1863
    Last night about 7:30 I got my valise in the baggage car and my ticket, took 
    my seat and at twenty minutes before eight, started.  Traveled all night and 
    daylight came on us at Vance (formerly Company Shops).  We arrived at 
    Salisbury at 1:30 where I will have to wait until 10:00 tomorrow before I can go 
    westward.  I took lodgings at the “Mansion Hotel”.  I met several friends in town—
    Major James W. Wilson, Superintendent and Chief Engineer of the Western N. 
    Carolina Railroad, formerly quartermaster of Ransom’s Brigade; Dr. J.G. Ramsay, 
    candidate for Congress; O.G. Foard, Esq.; Lt. John J. Lyerly and others. Salisbury 
    is a dry place compared to what it was before the war.
    Wednesday, Nov. 4, 1863
    Last night I slept in the “Mansion Hotel” in a good bed and in quite a pleasant 
    room.  This morning after breakfast and after attending to a little business, I went 
    to the depot to take the train to Statesville.  This being election day I concluded 
    to go to Statesville where I would see many of my friends and probably meet with 
    cousins P.B. and J.F. Chambers.  After taking my seat, Lt. J.L. Lyerly introduced 
    me to Miss Mollie Atwell and placed her under my charge.  She is a young lady 
    on her way from Edgeworth Seminary in Greensboro, N.C.  She formerly attended 
    the Female College in Statesville.  I found her a most interesting companion, just 
    young and pretty enough to be interesting; sprightly and lively in conversation and 
    has a little dash of wildness about her.  Got to Statesville by noon and took 
    lodgings at the “Simonton House”.  I was surprised to find so few people in town 
    and mortified that there was no more interest felt in the election.  I met several 
    old neighbors and acquaintances but no home folk.  Spent the greater part of the 
    day with Miss Atwell.  At night I accompanied her to church where she met many 
    of her acquaintances among the college girls.  Returned to the hotel and had a 
    long, pleasant conversation with her in the parlor.  I forgot to mention that Miss
     Jane Caldwell and several Statesville ladies came up on the train this morning.
    Early this morning I arose and got my fair charge prepared for the remainder of 
    her journey home.  We got breakfast and a little before 7:00 went over to the 
    depot where I rather reluctantly gave her over into the hands of the conductors 
    and saw her start on her way home.  So much for a harmless little flirtation—
    gained a very lovely, pretty little acquaintance—less exactly $14 car fare, hotel 
    bill and omnibus fare and about one third my heart.  Returning to the hotel, I 
    wrote a long letter to Lt. Thompson of my company.  Saw a lady friend and 
    correspondent passing in the street and joined her and went home with her and 
    had a very pleasant time.  Got a good dinner and waited until the next cars time.  
    Reluctantly left, went to the depot, got my ticket and was soon on my way to my
     loved home.  Took all by surprise—no one expected to see me.  Found all at home 
    well but my esteemed cousin and friend J.F. Chambers is quite unwell.  Mrs. J.K. 
    Potts is at present on a visit to cousin P.B. Chambers.
    Friday, Nov. 6, 1863
    This evening Capt. J.K. Potts returned from a visit to Statesville.  He and Mrs. 
    Potts took the train for Morganton this morning.  I went up to grandfather’s this 
    Saturday, Nov. 7, 1863
    Remained at grandfather’s until after dinner when Uncle Ebeneezer and I started 
    back home.  We stopped at cousin J.F. Chambers’ and spent a short time with 
    cousin Mary (cousin Joe being away on the farm) and then came on home.  Found 
    all still well. 
    Sunday, Nov. 8, 1863
    Went to Third Creek Church in the carriage with cousin Justina.  Heard Rev. Mr. 
    Bennett, was much pleased by him and after one sermon returned home.
    Monday, Nov. 9, 1863
    Got a horse from cousin P.B. Chambers and went to Statesville to get leather to 
    have a pair of boots made.  Had a very cold ride and did not succeed in getting 
    either boots or leather to make them.  Came back home.
    The Landmark, April 17, 1924
    This morning, taking a horse and placing my little Uncle Ebeneezer behind me, 
    I rode up to the Crossroads in company with my cousin P.B. Chambers.  Thence 
    I went again to Statesville by the way of my grandfather.  Left Uncle Ebeneezer at 
    home, got a side of upper leather from Aunt Ruth from which I expect to have a 
    pair of boots made.  Got sole leather at Simonton Tannery for $5 per pound.  
    Such leather is worth $10 per pound on the market but in consideration I suppose, 
    of the fact that I am a soldier, I got it much cheaper.  Going on to George Watts—
    where I expected to have my boots made—I traded for a pair he had made for 
    himself.  I got them for $79.  Got dinner at Mr. Watts and returned to my 
    grandfather’s bringing back Aunt Ruth’s leather.  
    Wednesday, Nov. 11, 1863
    This morning I came down to the Crossroads (cousin J.F. Chambers), stopped a 
    while and then proceeded home, where, preparing hastily and eating a lunch, I 
    took the train for Mroganton where, after walking from the heads of the railroad, I 
    arrived about dusk.
    Thursday, Nov. 12, 1863
    Lodged at the “Walton House” and slept rather uncomfortably in a cold room.  
    This morning saw a display of the Honor guards who, this morning, returned 
    from an expedition up the mountains after deserters, some 30 or 36 of whom
     they had under charge.  Saw Hon. W.W. Avery to whose wife I had a letter of 
    introduction from cousin Mary.  In the evening I rode out to “Swan Ponds”, the 
    residence of Col. Isaac T. Avery in company with Major A.C. Avery.  In addition
     to Col Avery’s family, I met with Captain George West and Lt. Ewing of Lt. 
    General D.H. Hill’s staff, Mrs. A.C. Avery and Miss Martha Avery.
    Friday, Nov. 13, 1863
    Sat up until 11:00 last night and awoke about 3:00 this morning.  Got a good 
    breakfast and by daylight was on my way to Morganton five miles distant to take 
    the stage for the head of the railroad.  Found the stage crowded and in company 
    with another gentleman walked down.  A pretty hard walk we had of it and 
    although the morning was quite cold we perspired freely.  Stopped at the 
    Crossroads, met Uncle Joe Chambers and Uncle Ebeneezer—got dinner and 
    started in the buggy with my uncle for my mother’s.  When near our grandfather’s 
    our harness broke and we stopped for the night.
    Saturday, Nov. 14, 1863
    Started as soon as we could see and got to our destination by 9:00.  Took all 
    by surprise.  Mother was at a neighbors but being sent for soon returned.  
    Found all well.  Nothing else of interest.  
    Sunday, Nov. 15, 1863
    Remained all day at mother’s.
    Monday, Nov. 16, 1863
    Started for home early.  Got to grandfather’s and found that I could not reach 
    home in time for the train.  Leaving the horse and buggy in Uncle Ebeneezer’s 
    charge, I took the train for Statesville at Lingle’s.  Met my friend Capt. A.A. 
    Hill in town and soon made arrangements for a pleasant night.  Saw a good 
    many friends and acquaintances in town—this being county court week.
    The Landmark, April 21, 1924
    Tuesday, Nov. 17, 1863
    According to previous arrangements, Capt. Hill and I, by accident, of course, 
    met at Mr. C.L. Summers residence.  Misses Mollie Somers (Summers), Turza 
    Sharpe, John Tomlin, and Maggie Reynolds were there.  Enjoyed ourselves 
    finely, sat up until after midnight.  Saw the ladies to their homes, returned to 
    Mrs. Summers and went to bed.  Got an excellent breakfast and went up to town, 
    saw a good many friends, called upon Miss Janie Caldwell and finally took the 
    train and came home.  Found all the family except Dr. Powe was absent at the 
    lower plantation.
    Wednesday, Nov. 18, 1863
    Remained at home until after dinner when I went up to the Crossroads, thence to 
    grandfather’s, and thence to Mr. John Steele’s where I met with quite a pleasant 
    party consisting of Misses Terza Sharpe and Mollie Somers of Statesville and 
    Mary, Jennie and Sallie Steele, Capt. A.A. Hill and Claudia Summers. This was 
    another of those ACCIDENTAL MEETINGS, at least such it was intended to 
    appear to the uninitiated.
    Thursday, Nov. 19, 1863
    Last night we sat up until after midnight.  Of course we enjoyed ourselves.  
    How could it be otherwise, with five young ladies and three young men?  This 
    morning, bidding farewell to the pleasant party, I went to grandfather’s where, 
    remaining an hour, I parted with my old grandfather, kind aunt and little cousin 
    and went to the Crossroads, picking up Uncle Ebeneezer at Mr. Leslie’s.  Took 
    dinner with cousin Joe and cousin Mary, got the mail and came on home.  Found 
    that cousins Pinck and Justina had just returned from the lower plantations.  Mr.
     Armes, who was formerly an overseer for cousin Pinck had gone with them.  
    Later in the evening, cousins Joe and Mary, Uncle Ebeneezer and the children 
    came down.  Cousins Joe and Mary returned home after an hour’s stay.  
    Friday, Nov. 20, 1863
    Was busy all day preparing to leave.  At the proper time went out to the railroad 
    accompanied by cousins P.S. Chambers, Uncle Ebeneezer and Dr. Rowe.  Got 
    to Salisbury about 4:30, attended to my business, and got supper at the “Mansion 
    House”.  Saw Mrs. Neave and Lt. John J. Lyerly.
    Saturday, Nov. 21, 1863
    Got off from Salisbury about 10:00.  Got to Raleigh, attended to my business and 
    was ready to leave long before night.  Walked about town until I was very tired.  
    Had to go to Captain Gulick’s office six times before I found him in.  Got the state 
    bounty for my volunteers—Rice and the two McCandless’.
    Sunday, Nov. 22, 1863
    Last night I paid $2.50 for a bed at Price’s Hotel until train time.  At midnight got 
    off for Goldsboro where we arrived about 4:00.  Paid $3 for a bed until morning.  
    Saw Lts. Bowers, Barrett, Connelly and Captain Petty of our regiment together 
    with several other men.  They are all except Connelly and a squad of men on 
    their way to Weldon to attend a court martial.  Went to the Methodist Church 
    and heard Rev. A. W. (last name illegible).  At 3:00 got off for Kinston where 
    we arrived about 5:30.  Met Lts. Harris and Thompson and a good many others 
    of our regiment.  Rode out to camp with Lt. Harris in the ambulance.  
    Monday, Nov. 23, 1863
    Remained in quarters nearly all day reading and writing, etc.  Had no drill in the 
    morning but company drill, dress parade and guard mounting in the evening. 
    Saw a lady acquaintance riding with Lt. Col. Flemming—Miss Kelly.
    Tuesday, Nov. 24, 1863
    A slight rain or mist prevented drill this morning.  Had company drill in the 
    evening and after it dress parade and after that guard mounting after which 
    exercises I had to officiate as officer of the day.  Tonight through the Richmond 
    papers we get the report that Longstreet has captured Knoxville and had taken 
    2,200 prisoners.
    Wednesday, Nov. 25, 1863
    Being on guard duty last night, I was excused from all duty today.  Remained 
    in my quarters reading and writing.  After noon, we received orders to be ready 
    to march at a moment’s notice.  This was caused by some of our cavalry pickets 
    being captured by the enemy last night or this morning.  In consequence there 
    was no drill and a heavy mist prevented dress parade and guard mounting.
    Thursday, Nov. 26, 1863
    The rumor concerning the capture of our cavalry pickets was greatly exaggerated.  
    None were captured or killed.  The enemy only dashed up and fired into the camp 
    of the pickets.  We did not drill today.  Had dress parade and guard  mounting in 
    the evening.
    Friday, Nov. 27, 1863
    Instead of drill this morning we policed the camp.  After dinner we suddenly got 
    orders to move immediately.  We went to Kinston and found we would have to 
    wait until morning for a train.  The choice was given us to either stay where we 
    were or come back to the camp.  We were about concluding to stay when we 
    received orders to return to camp until further notice.  This we did forthwith.
    Saturday, Nov. 28, 1863
    Last night it rained heavily.  This morning we again received orders for 8 and then
     for all the company to send up all their baggage immediately.  This was then 
    hauled to town. Showers of rain continued to fall all morning.  After dinner, orders
    were received for the regiment to move to Kinston.  After getting to town, we found 
    we could not get off until morning.  Commanders of companies were permitted to 
    quarter their men in the empty houses in town.  I got my company into a good 
    house.   Lt. Bowers and Thompson and several men and I occupied an office 
    nearby.  Lt. Bowers returned this evening from Weldon where he had been to 
    attend his trial before a court martial.  The 50th N.C. Regiment of Martin’s Brigade 
    came from Wilmington this evening to relieve us.
    Sunday, Nov. 29, 1863
    Slept but little, the floor being too hard.  This morning my company and Capt. 
    Connor (I), came to Goldsboro on the passenger train.  About 10:00 the remainder 
    of the regiment came up and all others on the train.  We started for Weldon where 
    we arrived about 7:30 after a very cold and disagreeable ride.
    Monday, Nov. 30, 1863
    Last night after wandering about considerably, in the dark, and through the mud, 
    I got most of my company collected together by a large wood pile on the riverbank. 
    Lt. Krider, the chaplain and I, slept as best as we could.  The 21st N.C.R. also 
    arrived here last night.  The bands of both regiments played, a great deal of liquor 
    was drunk, much excitement and confusion prevailed.  We went to the late camp 
    of the 35th Regiment.  Captain Davis of Company F has become major.
    Wednesday, Dec. 2, 1863
    Had no drill today and I spent the time writing.  Lt. Krider and I went over to town 
    and arrived back in time for dress parade.  This was conducted by Capt. Petty. 
    The news this evening is vague and unsatisfactory.  General Bragg at his own 
    request has been relieved from command and Lt. General Hardee is temporarily 
    in command of that army.
    Tuesday, Dec. 3, 1863
    Had no drill today.  Remained quietly in camp until later in the evening when 
    Lt. Col. Flemming came from Weldon to camp and ordered us to get ready to 
    move immediately.  We left our tents standing and were soon on our way to 
    Weldon, ready for the train.  (some illegible words follow.)  We took the road 
    towards Tarboro.  Sgt. Barger(?) had just gotten to camp with a lot of very good 
    things for Lt. Krider and myself.  These we hated very much to leave.
    Friday, Dec. 4, 1863
    Last night after getting to Tarboro we were marched into a piece of woods near by, 
    where, building fires, we made ourselves as comfortable as possible until this 
    morning.  Getting between two men, I managed to get a little sleep.  We remained 
    here until about 4:00 today when we took the train for a return to Weldon.  In the 
    meantime our band had been on a serenading tramp through town.  Some of us
     got a good dinner at the hotel and the 51st N.C.R. of Clingman’s Brigade had 
    arrived.  We got off at the time mentioned and got to Weldon about 11:00 and 
    immediately went to our camp.  An anticipated raid by the enemy caused our 
    movement.  They had appeared in considerable force before the 24th N.C.R. 
    of our brigade in the direction of Greenville.
    The Landmark, April 24, 1924
    Saturday, Dec. 5, 1863
     Remained in camp all day.  Dress parade in the evening.  On Thursday evening 
    last Col. McAfee got a leave of absence to get married.  This evening Capt. 
    C.A. Durham, A.Q.M. of our regiment left to attend the colonel’s wedding.
    Sunday, Dec. 6, 1863
    Another day in camp—very cold.  No services.  Was detailed on guard tonight.  
    S.S. Benson, who has been in Wilson Hospital, came back tonight.  No dress 
    parade for a wonder.
    Monday, Dec. 7, 1863
    Remained in camp all day.  No dress parade, no drill.  No important news.  
    Some Yankee prisoners passed this evening.
    Tuesday, Dec. 8, 1863
    Nothing new.  No drill; dress parade in the evening conducted by Major James 
    T. Davis.  No important news except that General Longstreet has raised the 
    siege of Knoxville and is retreating in the direction of Bristol.  Grant from the 
    south, Burnside from the east and forces on Cumberland Gap in the north are 
    trying to pen him in and capture him.
    Wednesday, Dec. 9, 1863
    Some men of our brigade were sent to be shot on account of desertion but for 
    some reason or other their execution has been postponed ten days.  Remained 
    in camp busy doing nothing as usual.  Lt. Krider and I went over to Weldon after 
    parade—he to meet his brother and I to see my friend Capt. Hill who was to
     pass on his way to his command.  Rev. Mr. Krider did not come but fortunately 
    I saw my friend and had a long, pleasant chat with him. The papers this evening 
    bring no news, most of them being filled with the presidential message and the 
    message of the governor of Virginia.  Lt. Thompson of my company was detailed 
    on guard tonight.  Julius A. Elliott who was permitted to go home with his dead 
    child from Kinston, returned tonight.
    Thursday, Dec. 10, 1863
    This is the day appointed by Governor Vance as a day of fast, humiliation and 
    prayer.  It is to be hoped that it is generally observed throughout the 
    commonwealth and that the Ruler of Nations will hear and answer the prayer of 
    His people.  We had no drill but dress parade as usual.  I finished “Adam Bede”, 
    a novel recommended by our chaplain today and scanned over the message of
    our worthy and most excellent President Davis.  On last night one year ago I
    got to my present regiment and on this morning on year ago I took charge of 
    my present company as we started to the Battle of Fredericksburg.
    Friday, Dec. 11, 1863
    Spent the day as usual in camp.  Had dress parade.  Capt. E.B. George, 
    A.C.S., formerly commissary of our regiment, but who is now purchasing 
    commissary for the government, came out to see us this evening.  He is on 
    a business trip to Weldon.
    Saturday, Dec. 12, 1863
    Captain George stayed with us last night.  I busied myself in reading and 
    writing.  Revs. Messrs. McBryde and Isler of Fayetteville Presbytery came 
    here this evening.  The former returned to Weldon while the latter remained 
    in camp.
    Sunday, Dec. 13, 1863
    Rev. Mr. Isler preached last night and slept with us afterwards.  He preached 
    again today and went off this evening.  Capt. George and I went over to 
    Weldon this evening and returned in time for dress parade.  One year ago 
    today the Battle of Fredericksburg was fought, my first battle.  
    Monday, Dec. 14, 1863
    Capt. George stayed with us last night and left early this morning.  Remained 
    in camp all day and had no dress parade.  The papers today contained 
    Lincoln’s message; proclamation and form of oath for repentant Rebels.  
    Good, considerate Abraham!  He kindly opens the way for reconstruction 
    and for a peace which to Yankee feelings is perfectly honorable.
    Tuesday, Dec. 15, 1863
    The same dull camp monotony as several days past.  The papers contain 
    no important news.
    Wednesday, Dec. 16, 1863
    Placed in charge of a large detail.  Got to Weldon.  Nothing unusual 
    occurred until 3:00 when Major Davis informed me I was to immediately 
    take charge of 250 men and report to General Ransom in Weldon.  The 
    men were soon ready:  Lts. Harris, Magness, Weaver, Barnett, Conner, 
    Torrence, and Connelly were detailed to go along.  I was to be mounted and 
    was furnished with Sgt. Holland’s horse—a clumsy old fellow nick named 
    “Copper Bottom”.  Going to Weldon, General Ransom informed me that I 
    was to go immediately to Franklin Station on the Seaboard and Roanoke 
    Railroad to take the place of some troops who had left there.  After 
    consultation with the general, I concluded to sent “Copper Bottom” back 
    and to go on without a horse.  Just as the train was moving on the proper 
    switch for us to “get aboard”, the engine ran off the track.  Here, then, was 
    a delay which would throw us into the night starting.  Agreeably to the 
    general’s instructions, I moved the detachment to a large wood pile on the 
    river bank and let them build fires and remain until the engine could be 
    gotten on the track.  About 7:30 we got off and got to our destination about 
    The Landmark, April 28, 1924
    Thursday, Dec. 17, 1863
    Last night when we got to Franklin, Virginia, I found the commander, Major 
    Rylander,  to be very kind.  He gave me for my men a large wood pile his men 
    had cut and hauled for their own use, and then invited all my officers and I to 
    stay in his quarters.  Lts. Harris, Connor, Connelly and I took advantage of his
     invitation.  Lt. Connor had the misfortune of walking into a large well at the 
    water tank and got a complete but rather uncomfortable bath in the dirty watery.  
    This morning it commenced to rain and continued with occasional showers all 
    day.  Awaited orders from General Ransom—and about 10:00 received a 
    telegram ordering for the present to report to Major Rylander.  Got rations for 
    the men and made ourselves as comfortable as possible in the empty houses 
    around.  At 3:00 I received from Major Rylander’s adjutant an order to proceed 
    at once to South Quay, five miles down the river.  This order was given in 
    accordance with orders from Col. R. Griffin, commanding forces on the 
    Blackwater.  We were also ordered to take four days rations which I found 
    impossible to do as the men could not carry them.  I took only one days 
    rations and left a requisition for three days rations, intending to sent back for 
    them by the first opportunity. Took up the line of march through the rain and a 
    little after dark arrived at the disagreeable place.  I found no orders and struck 
    camp.  Just as the men were getting their fires to burn and making themselves 
    as comfortable as possible, Captain Baldwin, A.Q. of Col. Griffin’s regiment, 
    rode up and delivered to me written orders to cross the river with my command 
    and the two pieces of artillery which I would find at South Quay camp on the 
    bank of the river, throw out pickets to prevent a surprise and move promptly at 
    4:00 am.  Reluctantly I called my men into line and commenced crossing in 
    the flat boat.  In an hour I got the artillery and all across.
    Friday, Dec. 18, 1863
    Last night was a night long to be remembered.  Without any shelters, without 
    axes and without anything but old, wet, pine tops for wood, we endured the 
    pelting rain until the hour for moving.  I slept but half an hour.  I was up during 
    the remainder of the time making arrangements to have rations brought from 
    Franklin and attending to other matters connected with my command.  The 
    our appointed, we started, the men having been aroused an hour before.  The 
    mud!  The rain!  The darkness was such as almost to be feared and as we 
    moved along, we had to case our eyes upwards to see the opening in the 
    trees in order to see the direction of the road.  There was no possible of 
    avoiding the water and the mud—no alternative but to wade right through.  
    With loud yells, the boys plowed on.  Splash! Splash! Splash! We went 
    through the mud, the falling rain and through the swollen streams.  On we 
    went, now stopping at a well to get water, then resting a little, when we 
    would be up and at it again.  Went through Nansemond County, Virginia by 
    Reynaldston and Buckland and Gates Co., N.C., and to the town of Gatesville, 
    the county seat.  We arrived at Gatesville about 3:00 and soon afterwards went
     into camp.  We had no cooking utensils and no axes.  There being some 
    wood in the vicinity we used it, ate our hard crackers and broiled our meat. 
    Pickets by the infantry and cavalry were thrown out on all the roads.  Part of 
    Col. Griffin’s cavalry regiment, part of Taliaferro’s cavalry regiment—three 
    pieces of artillery and some N.C. local troops (what number I did not learn) 
    constituted, with my detachment, the forces then in the vicinity of Gatesville.
    Saturday, Dec. 19, 1863
    This morning we moved down into the town in order to take up the line of 
    march in the orders laid down in the program sent around last night.  
    Information from below induced Col. Griffin to modify his previous plans.  I 
    concluded to take only forty of my men and leave about fifty local troops at 
    Gatesville.  We were to defend the ridge at this place over Bennett’s Creek.  
    The other troops moved on about 9:00 and we returned to camp.  I had 
    appointed Lt. Connelly of Company A to act as adjutant and he now had 
    plenty to do.  Lt. Harris with several non-commissioned officers and 12 privates 
    were sent to picket the road on which we came and the one leading to Suffolk.  
    A squad of cavalry of Talliaferro’s regiment had been left with us to act as 
    videttes.  They were sent on these roads also.  Lt. Weaver, with nine men was 
    sent to the bridge to relieve Lt. Barrett who had been sent here last night.  In 
    the evening, the commander of the local battalion, Col. J.E. Edwards, Lt. 
    Wiggins of the artillery, Lt. Connelly and I rode out on the several roads to 
    select the best positions at which to fight the enemy should he come.  Having 
    made every arrangement we could and selected positions for the infantry and 
    the piece of artillery, which had also been left under my charge, in case of 
    attack, we returned to camp.
    Sunday, Dec. 20, 1863
    Last night about 10:00 I learned that there was a road leading from town to the 
    Chowan River (which was nearly three miles distant up which the enemy had 
    once brought a force which they had landed from their gun boats when they 
    heard that our forces were in the vicinity) and hearing several cannon in the
    evening, some of the citizens of the town feared that the enemy, learning that 
    Col. Griffin was below, might again land troops there, surprise us, and destroy 
    the bridge.  Col. Edwards and I immediately determined to picket that road.  
    We decided to get some horses for mounted pickets but in this we failed.  Our 
    only alternative was to place a strong infantry picket at the point where the 
    road—which is a narrow causeway (through the swamp) over two miles in 
    length—emerges from the swamp and strikes the open land.  A strong picket 
    we thought, at that place, might hole a large force in check until we could get 
    the piece of artillery there to sweep the causeway.  The probability of an attack 
    left no sleep for me.  Never before did I feel so much responsibility resting on 
    my shoulders.  After passing a sleepless night, I had the detachment awakened 
    a little after 4:00, the men putting on their accouterments and being ready for 
    any emergency.  During the day we heard occasionally by courier from Col. 
    Griffin and I was puzzled to find forage for the cavalry and artillery horses and 
    rations for my men and the others under my command.
    The Landmark, May 1, 1924
    Monday, Dec. 21, 1863
    Made the same arrangements last night as the night before.  Forgot to mention
     that on Saturday we had to have a board of survey appointed to assess the 
    damages sustained by the citizens in loss of rails, wood, etc.  Captain Taylor 
    of the local battalion (67th N.C.R.), Lts. Magness and Connor of the 49th were 
    members of the board.  It may be well here to give the nature of these local or 
    state troops.  They are raised in this part of the state to serve only in the state 
    and are clothed, fed and paid by the state.  There has been, I learn, an 
    arrangement effected with the Confederate authorities to exempt from Confederate 
    service all in this portion of the state who have connected themselves with the 
    state troops.  About sundown today, I received orders to immediately move my 
    command to town.  The courier came in at a dashing gallop and told me Col. 
    Griffin wishes me to move more promptly.  I thought there was a fight on hand 
    and hurrying the men into line, was soon on my way to town.  On the way I 
    met Col. Edwards who gave me orders from Col. Griffin to draw in all my pickets, 
    place my squad of cavalry in front and my piece of artillery in the rear and proceed 
    on the road to South Quay on the Blackwater, in Virginia, where I had crossed 
    on Thursday night.  I returned to my command until my pickets came in when I
     took up my line of march.
    Tuesday, Dec. 22, 1863
    Last night was bitter cold.  The moon shone brightly except now and then when 
    a flitting cloud passed over it.  The earth, filled with moisture from the recent 
    rains, was frozen hard, the road rough and the air cold and bracing.  Our little 
    battalion looked like a dark mass moving along the road.  The polished barrels 
    of the rifles glittered brightly in the moonlight and the steady tramp, tramp, tramp 
    of the men, the rumbling of the artillery and the wagon which over the hard ground 
    was all that could be heard except occasionally one, getting into a mud hole or 
    water, or some jolly fellow would arouse the mirth of the crowd by a comic song, 
    a laughable joke or a keen remark.  But it was only now and then that these 
    paroxysms of mirth and noise would break the monotonous tramp and stillness 
    of the night.
    On, on, we tramped and at 2:30 we arrived at South Quay.  We marched the 
    whole distance—21 miles—after 7:00.  We halted on the same ground we spent 
    Thursday night, built fires and slept until after daylight when we crossed over.  
    We took up camp on the west side of the river where we had started to camp 
    last Thursday night and awaited orders. Not being able to communicate with 
    Col. Griffin, I reported directly to General Ransom who was at Murfree’s Station 
    with the 25th N.C. and the remainder of our regiment.  I saw Captain George, 
    formerly A.C.S. of our regiment who is purchasing commissary in this section 
    and has a station and agent here.  A little after dark I received orders to rejoin 
    my regiment at Murfree’s with my detachment, immediately.  Again we took a
     moonlight march and soon the five miles between us and our regiment were 
    reduced to nothing and amidst vociferous cheering and hearty greetings our 
    expedition ended.  None but those who broke down have arrived, of the party 
    of forty that was taken from my detachment to accompany Capt. George below 
    Gatesville.  Our cavalry went as far as Elizabeth City and were today reported 
    in Suffolk, Va., having, I suppose, passed thither through Gatesville and by 
    Sandy Cross along the road far to the east of Gatesville and just west of the 
    Dismal Swamp.  The object of the whole expedition as near as I can learn, 
    was to drive off or capture a large body of Yankees who were carrying on at a 
    high rate in the northeast counties of N.C.  These, however, fled and soon got 
    safely beyond our reach.
    Wednesday, Dec. 23, 1863
    Had a good sleep.  At sunrise, we were ordered to the depot and took the 
    train for camp near Weldon where, after a very COLD RIDE, we arrived at 
    1:00 pm.  The trip has broken somewhat the monotony of camp life but we 
    are all willing to endure the monotony for some time to come.
    Thursday, Dec. 24, 1863
    Remained quietly in camp all day writing letters.  Had drill and parade in the 
    evening commanded by Capt. Petty.  The remainder of my detachment 
    arrived this evening.
    The Landmark, May 5, 1824
    Friday, Dec. 25, 1863
    In accordance with our orders from regiment headquarters, read on parade 
    yesterday evening, there was no duty required of us today and no attendance 
    upon roll call after reveille.  There was some drinking in those companies 
    where boxes had been received from home and a great many cartridges were 
    wasted in Christmas guns. This is the third Christmas for me in the army—
    one at Manassas Junction, one at Fredericksburg and the third at Weldon—a 
    considerable distance nearer home each time. May the next Christmas find 
    us all at home, enjoying peace and independence.  To me and to this regiment 
    the period from last Christmas to this has been barren of much excitement.  
    We have had no great battles although we have been engaged in some 
    skirmishes.  We have been drilling most of the time and a review of our course 
    will show that since leaving Fredericksburg, we have been over the greater 
    portion of the time in eastern N.C., and no little part of southeastern Virginia.  
    Passing Richmond and Petersburg, we have been to Warsaw, Kenansville, 
    Wilmington, Topsail Sound, Goldsboro, Kinston and below towards Newbern, 
    back to Petersburg, to Ivor, again to Petersburg, to Drewry’s Bluff, again to 
    Petersburg, back to Drewry’s Bluff, below Richmond to Bottom Bridge, to 
    Richmond, again to Petersburg, thence to Garysburg, Boone’s Mill, Jackson, 
    Weldon, Tarboro, Weldon again, Kinston again and back to Weldon, a second 
    time to Tarboro and back to Weldon.  Myself and a portion of the regiment to 
    and beyond Gatesville and the whole regiment as far as Murfree’s Station, 
    Virginia and back again to Weldon.  Ten deaths have occurred in our regiment—
    none at all in my company.  It has been a year of mercies for us, and deep 
    adoration and gratitude to the Great Giver of All Good for unmerited favors is 
    and should be due.
    Saturday, Dec. 26, 1863
    Last night the men fired off guns about the camp in violation of orders from 
    regiment headquarters and today suffered the penalty of their actions by being 
    tied up by their thumbs and in carrying heavy logs of wood.  No duties today, 
    no evening parade.  Was busy in my camp all day.
    Sunday, Dec. 27, 1863
    Had rigid company inspection at 9:00 this morning.  Had a sermon from our 
    chaplain, Rev. Mr. Nicholson this morning. Nothing else of consequence today.
    Monday, Dec. 28, 1863
    It has been cloudy all day with occasional showers of rain.  I went to Weldon 
    this evening to get a newspaper and found the roads very muddy.  Tonight the
     lieutenant colonel (now in command of the regiment) required the presence of 
    the company commanders at his quarters and informed them that General 
    Ransom was pained to find that a great many depredations were committed 
    through the county informed us of the necessity of being rigid in our discipline.  
    A strong guard was tonight placed around our regiment, this is to be kept up 
    day and night.
    Tuesday, Dec. 29, 1863
    This, as other days recently, passed away without anything of interest transpiring.  
    I spent the time mostly in reading Pollards “Second Year of the War” which I fond 
    to be a very bitter book against President Davis and his administration.  It 
    displayed unwarranted partisan and personal malignity.  One would think that 
    the author had been an unsuccessful applicant for executive favor.  His pigmy 
    attempt at criticizing the campaigns of able generals and the acts of trusted and 
    talented statesmen are simply ridiculous. 
    Wednesday, Dec. 30, 1863
    Today we remained quietly in camp.  No duties of any consequence—guarding 
    around the regiment, policing the camp and dress parade.  Lt. Bowers was on 
    guard last night and Lt. Krider tonight.  This was a warm, pleasant day.  I 
    occupied myself principally in writing.  Finished the “Second Year of the War”, 
    and “Still Houses” and commenced Macualey’s England.
    Thursday, Dec. 31, 1863
    Last night it commenced to rain and continued almost without interruption all 
    day.  We were thus confined to quarters all day.  I was busy in verifying the 
    clothing account of my company, in writing and in reading Macauley.  Thus I 
    spent the last day of this year.  I should be devoutly thankful for the unmerited
     mercies of God.  He has preserved me from sickness, misfortune, and death.  
    He has permitted me twice during the year to visit my loved ones and see the 
    faces of my many dear relatives and friends.  While thousands of our fellow 
    soldiers have fallen in battle and thousands more have bee maimed for life 
    while we have been mercifully preserved.  During this year there has been no 
    deaths among members of my company and considering the sickly country in 
    which we spent the greater part of the year very little serious sickness.  This 
    was an appropriate day for the last day of the year.  The appearance of 
    everything was gloomy.  The clear, blue sky was veiled behind the murky 
    clouds.  The trees have long since dropped their vesture of leafy green, the 
    feathered songsters have betaken themselves to more congenial climes—
    everything seems silent and sad—and hoary with winter which is left undisputed 
    master of ceremonies in the obsequies of the departing year.
    The Landmark, May 8, 1824
    Friday, Jan. 1, 1864
    New Year’s Day!!  All hail to 1864!!  May it be a blessed year to us.  May white 
    winged peace visit us and may independence crown our efforts within the pale 
    of this year.  It ceased raining this morning and cleared up.  May this be 
    symbolic—may the clouds which now overshadow our country be in like manner 
    disbanded.  During the day the wind blew and by sundown it was extremely cold.  
    We had no drill parade.
    Saturday, Jan. 2, 1864
    I was busy all day arranging my company accounts, making a “morning report”
     book, “pay tables”, etc.  The man were as usual admonished  to prepare for 
    inspection tomorrow.  
    Sunday, Jan. 3, 1864
    Was relieved from guard duty by Lt. Ed. V. Harris of Company E.  Was busy 
    all day writing letters, attending to the issue of clothing, etc.  Went to Weldon 
    in the evening.  Saw Lt. L.H. Carter, adjutant of the post at Franklin, Va., and 
    who treated me so kindly when there.  Returned and found the regiment on 
    parade.  A carriage full of ladies was out to witness the parade, also an 
    equestrienne and her escort.  
    Tuesday, Jan. 5, 1864
    Last night it clouded and this morning rain fell,  light showers – was busy 
    reading and writing.  No dress parade.
    Wednesday, Jan. 6, 1864
    Nothing new.  Read McCauleys’ England all day.  Snowed a little after dark. 
    W.A. Thompson, who has been at Weldon Hospital, returned today.
    Thursday, Jan. 7, 1864
    Was busy all day superintending the making out of muster and pay rolls 
    for my company.  The day was cloudy and cold indicating snow.  Towards 
    night, sleet and snow began to fall and continued until some time in the 
    night.  No news of any consequence today.
    Friday, Jan. 8, 1864
    Was busy all day on my clothing account.  Was assisted by my 
    lieutenants—had Sgt. Ray and A.M. Miller working on the muster and 
    pay rolls.
    Saturday, Jan. 9, 1864
    Was busy all day arranging my company accounts for 1863 and in making 
    muster and pay rolls.
    Sunday, Jan. 10, 1864
    Had company inspection this morning at 10:00.  Mr. Nicholson having gone 
    to Tarboro, we had no services today.
    Monday, Jan. 11, 1864
    Finished the muster and pay rolls.  Lt. Thompson was on a detail today to 
    get ice.  The snow melting rendered it very  muddy.  Dr. T.N. Lucky, surgeon 
    of the 35th N.C., ate dinner with us today.
    Tuesday, Jan. 12, 1864
    Had pay rolls, clothing rolls signed today.  Lt. Krider was on ice detail today.
    Wednesday, Jan. 13, 1864
    Was detailed as “officer of the day” this morning.  Was busy when not 
    attending to my duties in answering letters.
    The Landmark, May 10, 1924
     Thursday, Jan. 14, 1864
    I was delighted this morning by the reception of a box of delicacies from a 
    young lady acquaintance (illegible word) of Rowan County, Miss M. M-----.  
    Such an array of tempting delicacies:  chicken, butter, custards, apples, 
    oranges and a large (illegible word) of excellent cakes of various descriptions.  
    Was ever a soldier more fortunate?  Hurrah for the young ladies!!
    Friday, Jan. 15, 1864
    The day passed off quietly.  Occupied myself in reading and writing.  No 
    news from any direction.
    Saturday, Jan. 16, 1864
    Received money to pay off my company and was engaged in attending to 
    it the greater part of the day.  Went to Weldon in the evening to get a paper.
    Sunday, Jan. 17, 1864
    Mr. Nicholson got back last night but was too unwell to preach today.  I 
    occupied myself in reading Abercrombies’ “Cultivation of the Mind”. Lt. 
    Bowers got a furlough of twenty days.
    Monday, Jan. 18, 1864
    I was engaged during the forenoon in writing and in the afternoon in reading 
    Macauley’s England.  I have become deeply interested in this history.  The 
    iniquitous reign of James II is now drawing to a close and it is instructive 
    and interesting to see what desperate measures he and his courtiers are 
    resorting to in order to force the Roman Catholic religion upon the people of 
    England and establish it in the kingdom.  You can see in the king the terrible 
    effects of blind and bigoted prejudices.  (illegible word) more can one see how 
    religions (illegible word) and fanaticism can lead a man to forget all other and 
    even the most prudent considerations.  We may draw an instructive parallel 
    between the causes of the papists and Jesuits of that day and the northern 
    fanatics of our time.
    Tuesday, Jan. 19, 1864
    I am becoming more and more interested in Macauley’s England.  He 
    groups his historical characters in such a way that his narrative excites 
    something with the same interest that a well written novel produces.  His 
    reflections, his searching analysis of character, his felicity of style, all 
    contribute to charm one with his history.  I have today read his account of 
    the influence and circumstances which induced Wm. Prince of Orange to 
    interfere with the government of England and have arrived at the end of the 
    9th of the long chapter where James, after retreating before the prince and 
    finding his friends and army deserting him, resolves to follow his wife and 
    little son to France.  Last night George W. Carr of my company got a sick 
    leave of twenty days.  This evening, Samuel S. Benson was sent to the 
    hospital and we received orders permitting five enlisted men to be furloughed 
    for every 100.  
    Wednesday, Jan. 20, 1864
    Continued reading Macauley’s England—am much pleased with the work.  
    I have just entered upon the third volume and am in the midst of the 
    arrangements which were made at the commencement of the reign of William 
    and Mary.  This morning, I received orders to be ready to march at a moment’s 
    warning.  This was caused, I learn, by a slight demonstration of the enemy 
    towards (illegible, Hamilton?)
    Thursday, Jan. 21, 1864
    Read some in Macauley’s England.  Was not as much interested as usual.  
    His theme was the proceedings of Parliament and I could not take so deep 
    an interest in the Test Act, the Comprehensive Bill, as I do in other matters 
    of English history.  In the chapter I have commenced, reading the stirring 
    events of eth war are about to take place.  The course of history is not turning 
    to Ireland, which seems likely to be the scene which England is to play the 
    most of her part in the great European coalition against France.  I received 
    from the quartermaster a blank book for a company book today.
    Friday, Jan. 22, 1864
    Was busy arranging my company book nearly all day.  Read a little in 
    Macauley.  Col. Lentz, father of E.C. Lentz, and C.A. Lentz of my company, 
    arrived tonight together with the wives of T.L. Thompson and J.H. Robinson.  
    We had dress parade by Major Davis this evening.
    Saturday, Jan. 23, 1864
    Orth Lyerly and Lt. Joseph Barber, Company B, 4th Regiment, N.C.S.T., 
    arrived this morning with a cargo of boxes for my company.  Of course, there 
    was much good humor over the nice things from home.  I was unfortunate.  My 
    box had been started by my good Aunt Ruth for Mr. Lyerly to bring but 
    somehow or other it had gotten lost, being the second one she has started 
    for me this month and the second one which has been lost.  Our mess, 
    however, is well supplied.
    Sunday, Jan. 24, 1864
    We are having beautiful weather now—warm and clear.  Today at Mr. 
    Nicholson’s request (he being sick himself) Mr. Mendenhall of Company H 
    delivered the discourse.  Hoke’s Brigade is new in the vicinity, having just 
    arrived from Virginia.  Several of his men came over on a visit today.  Had 
    regiment inspection this morning by Lt. Col. Flemming.
    The Landmark, May 15, 1924
    Monday, Jan. 25, 1864
    The day passed off quietly.  I was busy reading all day. We had dress parade 
    in the evening.  The band was not in attendance because, I believe, of some 
    member being sick. Mr. Nicholson, our chaplain, who has been unwell for 
    some time, got a sick furlough this evening and started for home.
    Tuesday, Jan. 26, 1864
    Nothing of particular interest occurred during the forenoon.  In the evening, 
    Col. David Lentz, Mr. Ortho Lyerly and Lt. Joe Barber who have been on a 
    visit to our company—started home.  I had heard that the band of the 4th 
    Regiment N.C.T. (my old regiment) was to pass Weldon this evening going 
    home on a furlough.  I went over to see them but was disappointed.  They 
    did not come.  I saw several old acquaintances, however—Lt. John Brown 
    of the 37th N.C.S.T.; and Wm. L. Davidson, formerly captain of Company A, 
    4th Regiment.  We have orders for inspection by Inspector General of the 
    brigade tomorrow morning at 9:00
    Wednesday, Jan. 27, 1864
    At the appointed time, the regiment was marched out by Lt. Col. Flemming 
    near the Weldon (illegible word) and inspected by Captain Steven(?) H. Gee, 
    Inspector General of our brigade.  After the inspection was over I was detailed 
    as “officer of the day” and Lt. J.T. Adams of Company K as “officer of the guard”. 
     I set to writing and in attendance on the guard until after 12:00 when awakening 
    Lt. Adams, I went to bed.
    Thursday, Jan. 28, 1864
    I had hardly gone to bed last night when the guard was relieved and orders 
    sent around to be prepared to march at 5:00. I was cut off of the comfortable 
    nap I had anticipated and had to go prepare to leave.  At the appointed time, 
    we went out to the railroad where we found the 25th Regiment also ready to 
    take the train.  It seemed to be the prevalent opinion that we were going on 
    a grand foraging expedition below our lines on the Blackwater in Virginia.  
    Although we had been roused so early, and come so soon to the railroad, 
    the trains did not come for us until about 10:00 and then, to the perplex ion  
    of all, were turned towards Goldsboro.  We got there after dark and went into 
    amp on the north side of the village.
    Friday, Jan. 29, 1864
    We lay in our camp all day.  Troops have been passing all day and going on
    towards Kinston.  The 56th Regiment of our brigade which has for some 
    months past been catching conscripts and deserters in the interior and 
    western portion of the state, arrived today. We got orders to be ready to 
    take the train at any moment.
    Wednesday, Jan. 30, 1864
    Last night about 10:00 we were marched down and put on the train and, 
    after considerable delay, got off for Kinston.  The night was cold and the 
    motion made the keen air pierce us through our clothing. About daybreak, 
    we got to Kinston.  We got off on the side of the railroad and remained a 
    short time during which our knapsacks and other baggage were collected 
    together and placed under guard and four days rations were given the men.  
    We were then marched through the town, over the river and to an old field 
    about a mile and a half from town (at which the headquarters of the brigade 
    were kept when we were here last spring) and rested until 11:00 when we 
    took up the line of march in a southerly direction.  Having gone for 11 to 15 
    miles, we camped.  We are still in the dark as to our destination and purpose.  
    Kemper’s and Barton’s Virginia brigades are along, together with artillery.
    Jan. 31, 1864
     Last night our bivouacs were in a briar patch in an old field where we got 
    scarcely any wood.  I slept tolerably comfortably with Sgt. Barger and A. 
    Nash.  Lt. Krider, I forgot to mention, met his wife at Goldsboro and 
    remained behind.  This morning early we started and after marching a 
    distance of about two miles, came to the Trent River.  We found that 
    during the night a pontoon train had passed our camp and had the 
    bridge ready for crossing.  Over we went and after a  march of three or 
    four miles, came to Trenton the company seat of Jones County.  The 
    town presents a dreary and dilapidated appearance.  The court house 
    and jail have been burned by the enemy.  We did not tarry here but 
    moved on.  This country shows the sad effects of war.  Large farms lay 
    untilled and unattended, dilapidated fences and out houses and 
    occasionally the charred vestiges of some residence where the vandal 
    invaders have wreaked their vengeance upon the secessionist.  Late in 
    the evening we came to the remains of a deserted and almost entirely 
    destroyed village or hamlet which his generally know, I believe, by the 
    name of Pollacskville.  Crossing a considerable creek near this place, 
    we proceeded two or three miles and camped.  My company and 
    Captain Connor’s (I) were sent to the front by General Ransom to stand 
    picket.  Our march today has been pretty severe.
    The Landmark, May 19, 1924
    Sunday, Feb. 1, 1864
    Last night Captain Connor’s company did duty until midnight when it was 
    relieved by mine.  Shortly after my company was put on post, a regiment 
    of cavalry passed, going to the front.  About 3:00 Generals Barton and 
    Ransom passed followed by the column which we were ordered to join.  
    General Barton being senior by commission to General Ransom, was in 
    command of the column or division.  We are still puzzled as to the reason 
    of our being brought here.  Some important movement is certain on foot.  
    We marched along in the dark and just a little after daylight three was an 
    alarm in front and quickly every preparation was made for a fight.  The 24th 
    N.C.R. (which headed the division and was immediately followed by a 
    battery of field artillery and our regiment) was formed in line of battle on 
    the left of the road and the pieces of artillery were gotten ready for action.  
    After some little time, the enemy not being found, we proceeded on our 
    way for several miles.  We were then formed in line of battle—our brigade 
    on the right and the Virginians on the left of the road.  The morning was 
    cloudy and we could not ascertain our exact position with reference to the 
    sun.  We had a vague idea that we were somewhere below Newbern but 
    what distance or what direction we could not tell.  Each regiment was 
    ordered to throw forward a company as skirmishers to cover the front of 
    the line of battle.  Although my company had been on picket last night 
    and the men were tired and sleepy, the column did us the honor—which 
    just at this time was very welcome to our sleepy fellows—to send us 
    forward on this most important and delicate business.  Our orders were 
    to proceed cautiously to the edge of the field a half miles to the front and 
    there concealing the men as much as possible from view to await the 
    developments of the events of the day.  Shortly after getting our line 
    established, we heard the rapid and heavy sound of cannon fire to our 
    left and on the opposite side of the Trent.  This continued for a short 
    time and ceased.  Word was now passing along the line that our cavalry 
    was moving to the front.  In a short time a sudden volley of musketry, 
    following by cries and many scattering shouts announced that our 
    cavalry had encountered enemy pickets.  Soon the field a few hundred 
    yards in our front was the scene of a lively chase of fugitive Yankees by 
    our victorious cavalry.  We soon learned the result of the affair was a 
    complete surprise of the picket posed and the killing of one Yankee 
    and the capture of five.  Our loss was one man wounded.  This put all 
    our fellows in good spirits.  Soon arrangements were made to put our 
    artillery in position to annoy the works of the enemy which had been 
    discovered.  Up to this time, we were still in the dark as to our position 
    thinking it probably that we had only encountered the advanced post of 
    the enemy.  But while we were keeping a sharp lookout to the front, a 
    flag was discovered far in the distance.  This was at first taken to be a 
    hospital flag but on closer scrutiny proved to be the stars and stripes 
    and what was still more exciting was that it waved over the main 
    fortifications at New Bern!  We know knew that New Bern was jut 
    before us and we formed more tangible ideas respecting the objective 
    of our expedition.  The artillery duel now commenced and the line of 
    skirmishers—the whole line now being placed by General Ransom 
    under charge of Captain C.A. Durham, A.Q.M., of our regiment—was 
    soon  moved half a mile to the front to protect our batteries.  From an 
    elevation near this position, we could plainly see the fortifications 
    immediately in our front and the church spires and houses of New 
    Bern several miles in the distance.  On our left, in fact, and running 
    in a northwest direction, was the Trent, now becoming a stream or 
    bay a half mile in width.  On our right was Brice’s Creek whose 
    general direction is north, entering the Trent before its junction with the 
    Neuse.  Beyond the creek is the railroad leading from New Bern to 
    Morehead City.  This road enters New Bern across the mouth of the 
    Trent by a bridge over 800 yards long.  Between us and this bridge 
    were several formidable earthen forts and a block house besides the 
    ordinary lines of fortifications.
    This is as near the true posture of affairs as I could form from my limited 
    observation and scanty knowledge of the immediate vicinity.  The shot and 
    shell now went screaming and shrieking through the air over our heads.  The 
    aim of the enemy was pretty good—many of their shells burst and scattered 
    their destructive contents and fragments in liberal profusion and in rather 
    unpleasant proximity to our position.  We remained here some time until 
    e withdrew to our original line. A lieutenant and private of the 24th Regiment 
    were badly wounded by the shells.  The man was said to be mortally wounded. 
    Late in the evening I was relieved by Lt. Krider and his company (K) and we 
    returned to the regiment.  We were very tired and sleepy and anticipated a 
    refreshing rest although rather fearing we would be roused to make a night 
    attack on New Bern.  We got our supper and prepared to sleep
    Tuesday, Feb. 2, 1864
    Last night a considerable rain fell, notwithstanding which, although our b
    lankets were saturated, we slept soundly during the night, our pickets had 
    been relieved.  The pickets from our regiment had been changed.  Company 
    G relieved Company K and this morning Companies D & E relieved G and 
    remained on duty all day.  Nothing else of consequence during the day.  In
    the evening, Capt. Ardrey and I went down to the picket line and had a good 
    view of the enemy’s fortifications.  A little before sun down we returned to the 
    regiment and to our surprise found the men in line, ready to march.  A little 
    efore dark, we started.  
    Wednesday, Feb. 3, 1864
    Such a march we had last night!  The road through this low, swampy country 
    was bad enough but now rain and the constant passing and re-passing of
     artillery and wagon trains had rendered it terrible.  It was one vast mud hole 
    about the consistency of buttet, with frequent places of mud depth.  The night 
    was dark and the darkness enhanced by the thick swamp forest on either side 
    of the road.  This precluded all ideas of avoiding the mud by taking the woods 
    on either side for each one leaving the mud became entangled in almost 
    inextricable networks of bamboo briers.  The orders were to keep the men 
    well closed up but this order was unnecessary as the discharge of firearms
     towards the (illegible word) answered every purpose.  The enemy was close 
    upon us and there was no other means necessary to urge them forward.  On 
    we went, plunging in through the mud sometimes at the shoe mouth and 
    sometimes to our knees.
    Frequently, men would stick fast in the mud to have to be pulled out by force. 
    Wagons stalled and several mules and horses were killed in the rush.  On we 
    went through the black, slick mud and through the swollen streams.  Soon the
     pines along the road that had been boxed for turpentine were lit and thus the 
    road was illuminated.  Torches were procured and the men began to seek their 
    way along the sides of the road to avoid the mud.  But still the march was, to 
    say the least, much disagreeable.  It was a picturesque scene.  This rash of 
    muddy men along an illuminated, muddy road.  It was the worst march we 
    ever took.
    About midnight, we left Pollacksville where we halted, drew rations, built fires 
    and made ourselves as comfortable as possible as the circumstances would 
    permit.  We learned that our hard march had been for the purpose of reaching 
    a point on the Trent where we could cross it on pontoon and join General 
    Pickett.  The pontoon bridge was put down last night but different orders being 
    received, it was this morning taken up and we moved on back towards Trenton 
    on the south side of the river.  The day was cold.  Passing through Trent we 
    came on up and crossed the Trent on a bridge some four or five miles above 
    where we crossed it on the way down.  We camped in the vicinity of the place 
    where we stayed on last Saturday night on our way down.  Our march today 
    was pretty severe.
    Thursday, Feb. 4, 1864
    Last night was extremely cold and I, for one, slept very little.  We could not get 
    wood to make good fires.  This morning we moved early and bivouacked about
     3:00 within about three  miles of Kinston.  We here got our mail and knapsacks 
    and built fires and washed ourselves.
    /Friday, Feb. 5, 1864
    Last night we slept quite comfortably by our large pine fires.  About 10:00 we 
    marched over to town and bivouacked in an open field along the railroad to 
    await transportation.
    Saturday, Feb. 6, 1864
    Last night a picturesque scene was presented by our camp fire.  As far as the 
    eye could reach, the camp fires flickered in the mushy darkness of the night.  
    Around them were groups of men, cooking, laughing, cursing and singing.  It is 
    a wild and savage scene and reminds me of the often described encampment 
    of Indians.  We lay here nearly all day.  The 24th and 25th Regiments got off 
    early in the day but we did not get a train until nearly night. At last we got 
    aboard and were soon whirling away towards Goldsboro.
    The Landmark, May 29, 1924
    Sunday, Feb. 7, 1864
    We traveled all last night and got to Weldon about 8:00 this morning and 
    forthwith repaired to camp.  We washed and put on clean clothes—a process 
    very necessary to most of us.  The results of our expedition were not inglorious, 
    although we did not take New Bern.  The cannonading which we had heard on 
    Monday morning was General Pickett attacking a Yankee camp.  He drove 
    them before him, capturing about 400 prisoners, two pieces of artillery, horses, 
    guns and more camp plunder than could be taken away.  He, with Clingman’s 
    and Hoke’s N.C. and Corse’s Virginia brigades had gone down the Dover Road 
    leading directly from Kinston to New Bern and encountered and defeated the 
    enemy at Batchelor’s Creek with the above after which some of his forces 
    pushed on and got as near as New Bern on the north as we were on the south 
    side of the Trent.
    An expedition down the Neuse under Commander Wood of the C.S. Navy, 
    who was already famous for his daring exploits on the Rappahannock and 
    Potomac, was a complete success.  Under the very guns of the strongest 
    fortifications around New Bern, he and his gallant crew boarded and captured, 
    after a desperate hand to hand conflict, the “Underwriter”, the largest Yankee 
    gunboat on the N.C. waters.  The enemy, regardless of their own men on 
    board, commenced throwing shells at the vessel as soon as they discovered 
    that a conflict was in progress, one shell bursting in the vessel and so 
    damaging the machinery that she could not be brought away.  Commander 
    Wood then secured his prisoners, fired the gun boat, and withdrew.  This was 
    done on Monday night.
    General Martin had moved from Wilmington towards Morehead City and 
    captured 60 or 70 prisoners.  How near that point he reached, whether he 
    reached and injured the railroad from New Bern to that point or what he did 
    beyond the capture of the above prisoners and courier, I have not been able 
    to learn.  The courier he captured had a dispatch from General Palmer, the 
    commander of New Bern at Morehead City, stating that unless reinforcements 
    were speedily sent to New Bern, it would be surrendered.  It is now a prevalent 
    belief among our officers and men that our (Barton’s) column rushed on to 
    New Bern Sunday night or even rushed forward when we first surprised the 
    ickets on Monday morning, that we could have taken the formidable works in 
    front of us, without much or a struggle.  Why the general did not do this, no 
    one knows.  At any rate, it is certain the enemy was not even dreaming of our 
    On Friday after our return to Kinston, some men were hung.  They had 
    deserted from Nethercutt’s Battalion, joined the enemy and were caught 
    fighting against us.  Two or three men were to have been hung on Saturday 
    but for some unknown reason it did not take place.  These are about the 
    results of the expedition.
    Monday, Feb. 8, 1864
    This morning about 4:00 as we were sleeping soundly on our comfortable 
    beds, the first real good sleep we had enjoyed for over a week—a most 
    unwelcome order came for us to move at 5:30.  There was no help for it 
    and we had to get up in the cold and make our arrangements accordingly.  
    At the appointed time, we were marched out to the railroad, knapsacks and 
    other baggage being left behind as ordered—where we remained about an 
    hour when we were ordered back to camp to wait until the train was ready for 
    us.  After getting back to camp, we were ordered to prepare our baggage, 
    tents and all to be taken with us.  About 1:00 we were again marched out to 
    the road where we found a train waiting for us.  We did not have time to take
    all our baggage and had to leave our bedding and valises behind. We went to 
    Garysburg where our train had wait until the mail train from Petersburg had 
    passed and where General Pickett and his wife also got in a coach on our train.  
    After the mail train passed, we whirled away towards Petersburg.  The evening
     was quite cold and we had a delay at Pleasant Hill Station for another train to 
    pass until nearly night.  At last it came and we went on our way.  Shutting up 
    the door on our box car, we managed to keep tolerably warm but we were so 
    crowded we could not sleep.
    The Landmark, June 5, 1924
    Tuesday, Feb. 9, 1864
    After getting to Petersburg last night, wood was procured and fires made on 
    the street.   Here we slept on the cold pavement and in the box cars until 
    morning.  About 7:00 we were marched out about one mile southeast of the 
    city and bivouacked.  In the evening, I went over to the city.  About sunset 
    we got orders to return to Weldon.  
    Wednesday, Feb. 10, 1864
    Last night Sgt. Ray and I got permission and went to hear Rev. Dr. Moses D. 
    Hoge, lecturer at the Tabb Street Presbyterian Church. The subject of his 
    lecture last night was “the sentiment of the English people towards the 
    Confederacy.”  It was an excellent lecture both as to delivery and style of 
    composition.  The subject matter, of itself interesting, was rendered still more 
    attractive by the way in which it was handled. The church was well filled.  After
     the lecture, we went to the theater.  This was truly a step from the sublime 
    to the ridiculous.  The play, the “Drunkard” was being acted but there was 
    such a strain on the part of the actors and actresses that it could hardly fail to 
    be disgusting.  After this, a couple of songs were given by a weak lunged, 
    attenuated young woman who looked like she had scarcely breath left in her 
    to sustain life.  After this, the comical play “The Lady and the Devil” was acted 
    when the affair closed.  I have never been in a first class theater but I have 
    visited those in Richmond and Petersburg and have seen little in either that 
    came up to my idea of good stage acting.
    At 7:00 this morning we came into this city, got on the train and about 10:00 
    followed the mail train out.  We got to Weldon about 3:30 and at once repaired 
    to our camp.  Our trip to Petersburg was doubtless caused by an advance of 
    the enemy up the peninsula towards Richmond.
    Thursday, Feb. 11, 1864
    Was busy all day writing and making reports of various kinds.  Had dress 
    parade in the evening.  Lt. Giles Bowers and George McCarn returned to the 
    company tonight.  Lt. Bowers has been home on furlough and McCarn on 
    sick leave.  
    Friday, Feb. 12, 1864
    Last night about 11:00 a large extra guard was detailed and two companies 
    sent to the bridge.  This was caused by some Yankee prisoners who had 
    escaped being in the vicinity.  It was felt they might burn the bridge.  Nothing 
    of consequence occurred during the day.  Had dress parade in the evening, at 
    which there were some fair spectators.  Preparations were made today for a 
    general inspection tomorrow.
    Saturday, Feb. 13, 1864
    We were all busy getting ready for inspection.  At 3:00 we were marched over 
    to the parade ground and inspected by Capt. Gee.  After the inspection, the 
    regiment was closed en masse and the president’s address to the soldiers of 
    the Confederacy was read.  Also, the proceedings and sentences of the court 
    martial which has been in session all fall at Weldon were read by the adjutant.
    Sunday, Feb. 14, 1864
    Had no inspection; had guard mounting and services by Rev. Mr. Alexander of  
    Mecklenburg County, N.C. Got orders last night to be ready to move.
    Monday, Feb. 15, 1864
    Nothing of consequence took place today.  In the evening, it clouded up and 
    sleet began to fall.  This finally turned to rain.
    Tuesday, Feb. 16, 1864
    A considerable rain fell last night.  Today I inspected the ordnance of my 
    company and attended to clothing which Captain Durham was issuing to the 
    men.  This evening the wind rose and blew out with considerable violence and 
    this made dress parade anything but a pleasant ceremony.
    Wednesday Feb. 17, 1864
    Finished issuing clothing to my company and took the receipts of men thereafter.  
    The day has been exceedingly cold.  Probably the coldest we have had this 
    season.  In addition to the ordinary coldness, a keen wind was blowing all day.
    Thursday, Feb. 18, 1864
    The cold and wind continued throughout the day.  There was some little 
    excitement in consequence of the late Conscript Act which has just been 
    passed by Congress.  At 4:00 the regiment was marched out in a field near 
    the railroad bridge where the whole brigade was assembled to see a man 
    rom the 25th Regiment shot.  The melancholy event was soon over and we 
    returned to camp.  The brigade was drawn up so as to form three sides of a 
    square.  The culprit, by whose side walked Rev. Mr. Deane, post chaplain at 
    Weldon, was soon marched to the center of the square accompanied by the 
    twelve men who were to execute him and who marched in files of two, six 
    efore and six after the culprit.  The squad, after arriving at the center of the 
    square, halted and faced to the front and awaited the consummation of the 
    few remaining arrangements for the execution.  A prayer was offered up, the 
    sentence was read, and the order given, a scattered volley, and the man was 
    dead.  He had twice deserted and had killed one of his own company, who, 
    with some others, was attempting to arrest him.  
    Friday, Feb. 19, 1864
    Nothing of consequence occurred today. The weather still remains bitterly 
    cold.  Had dress parade in the evening.
    Saturday, Feb. 20, 1864
    Nothing of consequence occurred today. The weather was a little milder.  
    Had dress parade.
    Sunday, Feb. 21, 1864
    The weather was milder today than it has been for some time past.  Had 
    regimental inspection today by Col. McAfee after which Rev. Mr. Alexander 
    delivered a sermon.  Nothing else of particular interest occurred during the day.
    Monday, Feb. 22, 1864
    Detailed as “officer of the day”—had guard mounting.  Dress parade by Col. 
    McAfee in the evening.  Made arrangements with Lt. Blue of Company I, I to 
    stay up the first part of the night, he to attend to the guard in the after part.
    Tuesday, Feb. 23, 1864
    Was relieved from guard this morning.  Drill was commenced again today—
    with company drill both morning and evening.  Had dress parade in the evening. 
    Wednesday, Feb. 24, 1864
    Lt. Krider was on guard today.  We got orders to march, leaving our baggage 
    and sick at camp.  We went over to the railroad and a little before sundown 
    took the train for Franklin, Va.
    Thursday, Feb. 25, 1864
    Last night after getting to Franklin we moved out one quarter mile towards 
    South Quay and bivouacked for the night.  This morning the 24th, 25th, and 
    56th regiments arrived and we all took up the march for South Quay.  We all 
    crossed over in the flat and bivouacked on the other side of the Blackwater.
    Friday, Feb. 26, 1864
    We remained all day in camp.  Meanwhile, artillery wagons and cavalry have 
    been arriving.
    Saturday, Feb. 27, 1864
    This morning about 8:00 all took up the line of march.  We marched pretty 
    hard, passed through Gatesville, N.C., and camped four miles east of that 
    place, having traveled about 26 miles.  We were all pretty tired not having 
    done any marching since the New Bern expedition.
    Sunday, Feb. 28, 1864
    Reveille was very early---we were on our way as soon as we could see.  
    Marched pretty hard—passed Sandy Cross and Riddick’s Store—and after 
    crossing a portion of the great Dismal Swamp, camped at White’s Store 
    about 7 miles from South Mills.
    Monday, Feb. 29, 1864
    Started early and before long got to South Mills on the Dismal Swamp Canal.  
    Here we stopped in an old Yankee camp and made ourselves as comfortable 
    as possible.  It now began to rain and we were in a rather disagreeable situation 
    being without any tents.  We made a substitution of blankets and courted the 
    sweet oblivion with as good grace as we could.
    Tuesday, March 1, 1864
    Early this morning, the 24th, 25th, and 49th regiments, preceded by Deering’s 
    Cavalry and accompanied by artillery, took up the line of march along the tow 
    road along the Dismal Swamp Canal.  After going some 8 or 10 miles, the 
    cavalry met that of the enemy, charging them, routed them, and pursued them.  
    The infantry had a hard time of it in endeavoring to keep within supporting 
    distance of our cavalry.  After arriving at a lock in the canal about 15 miles from 
    South Mills, our forces halted, the enemy having torn up a bridge on the tow 
    road and over a feeding canal.  Here several companies were placed in ambush 
    by General Ransom.  The enemy charged towards the destroyed bridge but 
    seeing the tracks of our ambushed men, they were about to turn back when 
    our men opened fire upon them, killing several and causing the remainder to 
    retreat at double quick.  General Ransom now commenced destroying or 
    blockading the road by cutting large ditches so as to permit the water in the 
    canal to enter them.  They were cut across the tow road.  Our wagons having 
    come up, rations were drawn and the men busied themselves cooking.  A 
    gentle mist was falling all the time, accompanied by a bitter cold wind.  I may 
    have mentioned that Col. Deering captured nine men and a lieutenant in the 
    chase this morning.  After eating a hastily prepared supper, we lay down to
    seek a little repose.  About the time I was entering the realm of sweet oblivion, 
    I was roused by the adjutant and ordered to take charge of a party to blockade 
    some swamp roads.  This was by no means agreeable to my feelings but there
     was no help for it.  We took the tow roads leading towards South Mills.  The 
    night was of an inky darkness and we were in constant danger of walking into 
    the canal on the one side or a deep ditch of water on the other.  
    I was to report to Major Grady of the 25th Regiment but it was a difficult 
    thing to find him.  At last I met him and we had no little difficulty in finding the 
    swamp road and obstructing it when found.  The rain began to fall but we 
    worked as best as we could felling trees across the road.  It was a little 
    singular that our investment of New Bern was accomplished on the 1st 
    February and our pursuit of the enemy on the far distant Dismal Swamp took 
    place the 1st March.
    Wednesday, March 2, 1864
    About midnight last night we were ordered to cease our labor and hold 
    ourselves in readiness to join our command as they passed us.  Building 
    fires on the side of the tow path, we sat down in the rain and cold wind to 
    await the movement of the brigade.  At 2:30 we got orders to proceed to 
    South Mills and clear the road both sides of the canal of any obstructions.  
    Major Grady had, during yesterday evening, cut trees by the road side so 
    that they could be easily felled on our way back to South Mills.  Some 
    wagoners had reported that the wind had blown these down.  Although so 
    sleepy I could hardly keep my eyes open, I got up and started after Major 
    Grady through the mud and water.  We continued to march until we reached 
    South Mills this morning about 7:00.  In about an hour, our brigade also 
    arrived.  After getting a little breakfast, I lay down and slept nearly all night.
    Thursday, March 3, 1864
    This morning, I was placed in command of five companies—A, D, D, E, 
    and I—and sent six miles up the road to relieve Col. Faison of the 56th 
    who was on picket.  We got to our destination about 9:00 and soon relieved 
    Col. Faison who with his force immediately took up the line of march to the 
    brigade.  Two pieces from Pegram’s (formerly Branch’s) splendid battery and 
    a small company of cavalry were placed under my orders.  The cavalry, 
    however, was soon ordered away, leaving me only two couriers.  I kept scouts 
    out to the front all day.
    The Landmark, June 12, 1924
    Friday, March 4, 1864
    I kept scouts to the front all last night and today.  All went merry as a 
    marriage bell until about 2:00 when the pickets in the rear fired off their 
    pieces.  Soon they reported the enemy coming down the canal from the 
    west.  I started a courier (illegible word) river to South Mills as ordered with 
    information.  Just as he passed our pickets he appeared to be fired upon 
    from the road side but was seen galloping off soon after the report of the 
    gun was heard.  Soon our (illegible word) reported the enemy in our rear 
    that is, between us and South Mills on both sides of the canal.  We were 
    in a dilemma sure enough.  I was determined to stay where I was and fight 
    them from whatever quarter they came until help could reach me from South 
    Mills.  Directly, one of the supposed Yankees came out and gave himself up.  
    He said he was not a Yankee nor were the men with him Yankees.  He said 
    that he and four others constituted the whole army.  By this time, Col. Deering 
    of the cavalry, with an attendant and the courier I had sent came up and , at 
    his suggestion, I took a few men and the person who had given himself up, 
    and went up the little canal or feeder to get the other four.  After going a mile 
    through the almost impassable cane and after much calling and entreaty, we 
    got them and the story of the men we had taken was verified and his credit 
    saved.  They proved to be men of Col. Henton’s command and were on scouting 
    duty in this vicinity, being entirely ignorant as to our being still on the canal.  
    Our pickets, expecting no one else, mistook them for Yankees and, in the 
    excitement of the moment, greatly magnified their number. General Ransom 
    had started the 25th and a few companies of the 24th to my assistance.  
    After the result was ascertained, the companies of the 24th and all but four 
    companies of the 25th were sent back.  Lt. Col. Bryson, with four companies
    of the 25th, came on and relieved me.
    Saturday, March 5, 1864
    Last night we got to the regiment, expecting to get a good night’s sleep but 
    to our chagrin we found everything bundled up and ready to start.  However,
     I lay down between Sgts. Ray and Barger and slept from 11:00 to 1:30 when 
    we were roused to march.  A disagreeable march we had of it until daylight.  
    We came soon to Sandy Cross this morning and halted, drew rations and
    Sunday, March 6, 1864
    Rested all day—contrary to our expectations—at Sandy Cross.  The 56th 
    was sent off with some wagons this morning but was this evening ordered 
    Monday, March 7, 1864
    Long before day, we were aroused and soon took up the line of march.  We 
    came through Gatesville and Reynoldston to Somerton Creek where we 
    stopped for the night.
    Tuesday, March 8, 1864
    The rain this morning caused us to seek shelter of the woods a mile distant 
    from our last night’s bivouac.  We had fixed up as well as circumstances 
    would permit, when orders to march came.  Everyone was delighted until it 
    was known that we were to re-cross the creek in the direction of Gatesville.  
    We did not go in the direction of Gatesville far until we took to the left and 
    passing through the village of Somerton six miles from our starting point in an 
    almost impenetrable thicket about three miles beyond that village.
    Wednesday, March 9, 1864
    This morning long before day, we were on the road.  We got to a church within 
    three miles of Suffolk when we halted. After some delay we were moved up and 
    formed in a line of battle—our regiment immediately in the rear of and supporting 
    the 56th.  Soon, however, we were ordered to resume our march towards the 
    town and now, for the first time, we discovered that the 8th Regiment N.C.T. 
    of Clingman’s Brigade was on our left while in line of battle.  It followed us 
    towards town.  We did not go far until we got to the railroad—the “Seaboard 
    and Roanoke” and “Norfolk and Petersburg”, which crossed each other about 
    two miles west of town.  As we marched over the Norfolk and Petersburg, we 
    could for the first time see the spires and houses of Suffolk.  We now began 
    to double quick and nearer the town, the faster we were required to go. We 
    did not understand the objective of this until we were rising over the hill just 
    this side of town when we were met by a little French-Louisiana Zouave who 
    had been sent back to urge us on.  He was in a perfect fervor of excitement 
    and rising in his stirrups in his sharp, stirring voice, cried “Col., for God’s sake, 
    hurry your men or you will be too late”.  Turning to the men, he would rush 
    along with “run boys, run, we will catch them yet”.  We were nearly exhausted 
    with our double quick.  The artillery had now been playing for some time and 
    still kept in our front.  Again we began to flag and again we were revived by the 
    sight that met our eyes as we passed through town.  All along the streets the 
    men, women and children were collected begging us to hurry.  Some were in 
    the attitude of prayer as if calling upon God to give us the desired success.  
    As we rushed along, water was brought to the sides of the streets in buckets 
    and pitchers and while giving it they would beg the soldiers not to drink too 
    much while so heated lest it might hurt them but to “take a swallow and hurry 
    on”.  At the eastern edge of town, as we passed through, we saw a crowd of 
    excited men around a small house.  We were told there were Negroes in it 
    but we had to hurry on.  The house was set on fire and burned before the 
    Negroes could get out.  In the “melee” around it, a man named Green of 
    Company B was shot through the breast by a Negro and killed.  But to 
    proceed:  passing this house we formed a line of battle and I was ordered by 
    Col. McAfee to take charge of the left wing of the regiment.  We now saw 
    the Negro cavalry fleeing away over the fields.  Our artillery played upon 
    them a short while, when it limbered up and rushed at a head long gallop to 
    the front with us, as far as we could go.  Every now and then the artillery 
    would stop and fire a few shots on the retreating minions of Yankeedom, when 
    it would whirl away again with us after it.  The artillery firing was excellent, we 
    could see the Negro cavalry scatter when the shells would fall in their midst.  
    We thus followed them nearly a mile when they got into the swamp and the 
    exciting chase ended.  We had captured a small brass piece and now we 
    began to gather up the riderless horses and the arms, etc., which the retreating 
    foe had scattered through the fields.  I was soon ordered to take my company 
    and reconnoiter some three miles to the front to ascertain the condition of things
     in that direction, as large columns of smoke were seen rising in the distance 
    and it was thought the enemy were burning commissary and quartermaster 
    stores.  I had not gone far, however, before scouts reported the enemy pickets 
    nearby in front and I was ordered to the rear.  Shortly after, the brigade was 
    marched down to the Yankee camps and the men were permitted to plunder 
    to their heart’s content.  It was a scene of indescribably confusion—clothing, 
    implements, paper, books, baker’s bread, etc., etc., were handled in regular 
    rampant Rebel fashion.  At darkness we returned to the fields near town and,
    the line of battle being formed, the men were permitted to lie down without fires
    to rest.  Had we only been accompanied by cavalry—good cavalry—the results 
    of this day would have been much different.  Although we are known as 
    “Ransom’s foot cavalry”, we can hardly overtake fresh and well fed horses—
    especially after the hard marching we have so recently undergone.  The citizens 
    say the Negro troops have been at Suffolk before.  These men had boasted they 
    wished the “dam Rebels would dare to put their feet in Suffolk”.  The desire had 
    not been long expressed before they were flying in good, swift style before the 
    “damned Rebels”.  It is said that there were three regiments of cavalry and a 
    few white infantry in the force we had caused to “change its base” to a point 
    nearer department headquarters at Fortress Monroe.
    The Landmark, June 19, 1924
    Last night I slept only tolerably well.  This morning, after getting our hasty 
    breakfast, we were formed and began to move to the left in two ranks, thus 
    making our line appear as formidable as possible.  At last we were halted and 
    fronted and ordered to stand in line of battle, meanwhile a battery on the right 
    and considerably advanced, was firing.  I should have mentioned that previous to 
    our movement to the left, the brigade had started again towards the camp of the 
    enemy with our regiment in front and companies D & K thrown forward as 
    skirmishers.  We had, however, only gone a short distance when the enemy 
    was reported as advancing in heavy force and General Ransom thought best to 
    return to his position of the night before.  Then commenced the movement 
    spoken of above.  After standing in line of battle for some time, the rain began 
    to fall very heavily.  It was cold and exceedingly windy and in that large, open 
    field, to have to stand still for hours and take that pelting rain was hard, but we 
    did it.  Meanwhile, several houses in our front were set on fire and in the midst 
    of the dreary, dismal scene, the lurid flames shot up their red, fiery and forked 
    tongues while the dense smoke curled in fantastic waves above.  Company A 
    of our regiment was in front as pickets and fired upon some Yankee cavalry that 
    came within range this morning but were unable to ascertain with what result.  It 
    is thought that they either killed or wounded several.  About 2:00 we moved back
     to the edge of town, the rain still falling.  In about two hours, we commenced to 
    move.  The roads were muddy and very slippery, putting one’s powers of 
    equilibrium to a test.  WE took the road towards Franklin on the Blackwater and 
    continued to march through the mud and water—straight across the steams 
    some of which were over our knees until about 9:00 or 10:00 when we bivouacked.  
    Friday, March 11, 1864
    Early this morning we were on the road.  Crossing the Seaboard and Roanoke 
    Railroad, we, the 49th and 25th Regiments, went to South Quay while the 24th 
    and 56th went on, crossing the Blackwater at Franklin.  We got to South Quay 
    about 2:00.
    Saturday, March 12, 1864
    This morning we crossed in the flat and marched up to Murfree’s Station where 
    we found a train waiting for us. Taking this, we came to our old camp from which 
    we have been absent ten days.
    Sunday, March 13, 1864
    Mr. Nicholson, who had returned during our absence, preached today.  I have 
    been quite unwell with very painful diarrhea which I took yesterday.
    Monday, March 14, 1864
    I am still quite unwell, being unable for duty, in fact, not equal to the task of 
    writing an answer to any of the many letters I have on hand.
    Tuesday, March 15, 1864
    Still no better.  Mr. Nicholson started to Goldsboro this evening and at his 
    request I took charge of his quarters and books.
    Wednesday, March 16, 1864
    Still quite sick.  Stayed last night in the chaplain’s shanty.
    Thursday, March 17, 1864
    Considerably better today.  At Col. McAfee’s request I today took charge of 
    money in the regiment, which would be funded.
    Friday, March 18, 1864
    This morning I was furnished a horse from the quartermaster department and 
    rode down to Halifax, about ten  miles from camp—and funded the money I 
    received yesterday with Mr. H.J. Harvey the C.S. Depository at that place.  
    I funded $1,400 for persons in the regiment.
    Saturday, March 19, 1864
    Busied myself today in making out my “roll of honor” as requested by the 
    laws of the state.  Got it finished and sent it up.  
    Sunday, March 20, 1864
    Mr. Nicholson preached this morning.  Lt. Krider who has been at home on 
    furlough returned last night and he and I walked over to Weldon to get his 
    valise and his other articles.  Mr. Nicholson preached again tonight.  The day 
    has been exceedingly pleasant, very much like spring.  Dr. Luckey, of the 25th,
     visited over this evening.
    Monday, March 21, 1864
    Nothing of consequence today except a slight fall of snow—enough to make 
    an appearance on the ground.
    Tuesday, March 22, 1864
    Early this morning, the snow commenced falling and continued all day.  
    By night the snow was about four inches deep and still falling.  I was this 
    morning, detailed as “officer of the guard” but owing to the inclemency of 
    the weather, no guard was mounted.
    March 23, 1864
    Snow balling was carried on to a considerable degree by the lovers of the 
    sport and the camp presented a lively scene.
    The Landmark, June 23, 1924
    Friday, April 8, 1864
     Nothing of consequence occurred today further than a discourse from our 
    chaplain, Rev. Nicholson.  This is the day of fasting and prayer recommended 
    by Congress and our president.  It is to be hoped it was piously kept and that 
    the prayers of the righteous shall avail much, and may be heard at the throne 
    of grace and mercifully answered.  In our camp, none but those who were so 
    disposed paid any attention to the day.  Lt. Krider and a good many of my 
    company went up to Harrelsville to attend services. 
    Saturday, April 9, 1864
    This morning, Mr. Nicholson and I went up to town.  The rain commenced falling 
    and continued with occasional showers all day.
    Sunday, April 10, 1864
    Mr. Nicholson preached here in the forenoon and in the afternoon went up to a 
    battery near Harrelsville and delivered a discourse to its members.
    Monday, April 11, 1864
    Sgt. Thomas T. Robison, James H. Robison and Wm. A. Thompson of my 
    company got furloughs and started home this morning.  Our band which has 
    been off on a furlough, returned to day.  B.T. Thompson of my company, who 
    belongs to it, was left at home sick with the measles—Lt. Krider and a good 
    many others went on a fishing trip today.
    Tuesday, April 12, 1864
    Was busy all day writing.  Capt. E.P. George paid us a visit today.
    Wednesday, April 13, 1864
    The boxes brought from home by the last returning men have been coming in 
    as fast as the wagons could bring them.  Mine came today.  We had dress 
    parade this evening.
    Thursday, April 14, 1864
    Nothing of interest occurred today.  We had dress parade this evening.
    Friday, April 15, 1864
    There was no fatigue party today.  The work which Capt. Ardrey has been 
    superintending is finished.  Nothing else of consequence occurred today.
    Saturday, April 16, 1864
    Last night it was reported that the Yankee gunboats were coming up the river 
    and Companies F, G & I were sent off about 11:00 to different points on the river.  
    This morning, we were placed under orders to be ready to march at a moment’s 
    warning.  Soon we heard the cannon but after a while it ceased and finally we 
    learned that the boats had retired.  They came within two miles of our battery 
    and exchanged shots with it.  A Rev. Mr. Mitchell of the Baptist Church preached 
    a very good sermon in our camp tonight.
    Sunday, April 17, 1864
    Mr. Nicholson preached after company inspection was over.  He then went 
    uptown where a good many had gone, expecting services and in the absence 
    of the expected minister, preached there.  In the evening a good many went 
    several miles into the country to hear Mr. Mitchell.
    Monday, April 18, 1864
    Nothing of consequence took place this morning.  I examined the papers of 
    John A. Hall, a recruit who arrived yesterday and finding them satisfactory, 
    he was examined and accepted by the surgeon.  This evening, we had quite 
    a party of country girls out to see our dress parade.  After the parade, some 
    of the gallant spirits enjoyed them considerably.  Late this evening, and tonight, 
    we heard heavy cannon fire to the south, supposed to be our forces attacking 
    Tuesday, April 19, 1864
    Nothing of consequence occurred today until about noon when we got orders 
    to be ready to march at 2:00 leaving knapsacks and tents.  Sometime after the 
    appointed hour, we started south and after passing Colraine, about 4 miles, 
    Wednesday, April 20, 1864
    This morning we moved on south and halted at what is called “Eden House” 
    at the mouth of the Chowan River.  In the evening, I was sent in charge of a 
    working party to throw up a work at the mouth of the Chowan.  It was where 
    we had a magnificent view of Albemarle Sound and river and near the grave of 
    Governor Charles Eden who died in 1722. We saw two Yankee gunboats pass 
    close to the sound and in the direction of Plymouth from the east.  After a short 
    while they returned, going eastward.  I suppose they were less than ten miles 
    distant when nearest.
    Thursday, April 21, 1864
    Again today I was in charge of a working party and got the work so nearly 
    completed that it could be used.  We saw a vessel or two today pass, along 
    to and in the direction of Plymouth. Col. McAfee who has been home on 
    furlough, returned.
    Friday, April 22, 1864
    This morning, preparations were made to return to Harrelsville and about 9:00 
    we started.  After a fatiguing march we got to our old camp about two hours
     before sunset.  In camp I found B.T. Thompson, who took the measles when 
    on furlough, with the band and Samuel S. Benson and Thomas F. hall, who 
    have returned from the hospital.  The last named was sent to the hospital a few 
    days before I came to this company and has never been back since until now.  
    Up to this time, the news from Plymouth through couriers and citizens, is that 
    our forces have taken the place, 2,000 white Yankees and 800 Negroes and 
    several companies of “Buffaloes”, or traitors and that our ram Albemarle has 
    sunk two of the enemy gunboats.  An official dispatch from Captain Gee of 
    Ransom’s staff to Col. McAfee stated that up to last Tuesday, (the date of the 
    dispatch) all but one fort had been taken.  Our (Ransom’s ) brigade had acted 
    nobly, having charged and taken four forts in succession.  One of them they 
    had to charge three times.  It was on Monday evening and Tuesday morning 
    we heard heavy fire in our camp. Our loss is said to be 200 killed and 500 
    wounded. We are anxiously awaiting further particulars.
    Saturday, April 23, 1864
    We all remained quietly in camp today resting after our hard tramp of yesterday. 
    E.C. Lentz brought a man by the name of James Jordan who enlisted in my 
    company.  Had dress parade by Col. McAfee this evening from which, however, 
    I got excused to do some writing. The rumor from Plymouth today is that we 
    have taken 3,000 prisoners at the smallest estimate—some say as high as 
    10,000.  We also captured, it is said, one gunboat besides the two that were 
    sunk, several hundred barrels of pork, 1,000 bags of coffee and dry goods in 
    any quantity.  Our forces are said to have gone in the direction of Washington.
    Sunday, April 24, 1864
    We had regular inspection by Col. Flemming this morning. After inspection I 
    and some others went to Harrelsville and heard our chaplain preach.  We also 
    heard yesterday rumors regarding Plymouth confirmed and also that our forces
     had taken Washington, N.C.—Lt. Bowers of my company, who has been in the 
    hospital at Weldon, though still unwell—returned today and through him we 
    learned that General Beauregard is at Weldon, that this department was now
    under his command and that his headquarters would be at Weldon.  Through the 
    mail which Lt. Bowers brought, I learned that Alexander Wise, a young man, had 
    enlisted in my company at Rowan Co., N.C., and that W.H. French had gotten a 
    furlough for 60 days from April 19, 1864.  I also learned through those returning 
    from the hospital that Andrew Menis of my company died at Wilmington, N.C., 
    on the 20th inst.
    The Landmark, June 26, 1924
     Monday, April 25, 1864
    Was busy writing all day.  About noon, my company, together with Companies 
    A & G, were ordered by Lt. Col. Flemming to get ready, and, after roll call, to go 
    to the lower part of Bertie County to catch straggling Yankees who may have 
    escaped across the Roanoke from Plymouth and also to attend to the “buffaloes” 
    but after some consideration, Lt. Col. Flemming concluded to let us wait until 
    morning.  We had any quantity of ladies out to witness the dress parade.
    Tuesday, April 26, 1864
    According to arrangements, we left camp this morning.  We were accompanied 
    by Col. Flemming as far as Mr. Holley’s.  We camped near Merry Hill.
    Wednesday, April 27, 1864
    This morning, we proceeded to Cashoke Landing on Cashoke Creek.  In the 
    evening, in some canoes, with picked men, I, by the order of Capt. Lytle, 
    reconnoitered the Sound at the mouth of the creek and went several miles up 
    the Cashie River.  Saw no indications of the enemy or hiding places of deserters, 
    Tories or Negroes.
    Thursday, April 28, 1864
    I went to the Sound again today. Saw a Yankee gunboat, and was reconnoitering 
    when signaled to by Capt. Lytle to return.  I learned that we had marching orders.  
    We came as far as Merry Hill.
    Friday, April 29, 1864
    Early this morning, we were on the road and got to Point Comfort near Colraine
     to learn that our regiment had already passed going towards Windsor.  We 
    had misconstrued Col. McAfee’s orders and instead of going back towards 
    Harrelsville we should have gone across the country to Windsor and awaited 
    the arrival of our regiment. We took the road after our regiment and marched 
    today fully thirty miles.  We got to within two miles of the regiment but had 
    already camped before we learned of the near proximity of our regiment.
    Saturday, April 30, 1864
    Joined the regiment this morning and marched with it through Windsor and 
    afterwards through a country with every evidence of luxury, refinement, taste 
    and wealth.  We camped about nine miles from the Roanoke.  We are making 
    our way to Taylor’s Ferry.  Our say today led through country in which were 
    beautiful, well tilled farms, splendid residences and many things to indicate 
    intelligent, tasteful and wealthy people.  This was in most forcible contrast 
    with the country through which our road lay yesterday.  It was an interminable 
    pine forest, here and there interspersed with squalid huts and small, badly 
    cultivated fields.  It was the chief country of the “buffaloes” or tories of this 
    section of the state.
    The Landmark, June 30, 1924
    This morning we continued to march to the Roanoke.  A heavy rain fell on us 
    and, in addition to wetting us to the skin, made the road exceedingly 
    unpleasant to travel.  We had to wade through water over our knees to get to 
    the ferry and then after crossing, to wade through a bottom nearly a half mile 
    wide in which the water was over knee deep.  It was a hard tramp.  After 
    crossing, we went on to Hamilton and camped.
    Monday, May 2, 1864
    Zimri Costner of Company H, was shot this morning in accordance of the 
    sentence of the late court martial at Weldon as the penalty for desertion.  
    We then proceeded on our way towards Greenville and camped within seven 
    miles of that place.
    Tuesday, May 3, 1864
    Came to Greenville and rested.  Went on our way south.  Heard in Greenville 
    that the enemy had evacuated Washington, N.C., but not until they burned a 
    large portion of that place.  Camped in a pine thicket on the left side of the road.
    Wednesday, May 4, 1864
    Crossed Cotentnea Creek and the Neuse River and camped on the railroad 
    within two miles of Wise’s Fork below Kinston.  We crossed the Neuse today, 
    where Capt. Black and I crossed last summer at the time of the Gum Swamp 
    expedition.  We used pontoon barges today.
    Thursday, May 5, 1864
    Crossed the Trent River on drift timber and reached Trenton by camping time. 
    Friday, May 6, 1864
    Rested all day in camp. Various rumors afloat about the operations of our 
    troops around New Bern.  Hoke’s old brigade passed us this evening going 
    back towards Kinston.
    Saturday, May 7, 1864
    Left Trent this morning and returned towards Kinston within eight miles of which 
    place we camped for the night.
    Sunday, May 8, 1864
    Came on to Kinston and took the train for Weldon.
    Monday, May 9, 1864
    This morning we got to Weldon about daybreak.  On our way from Kinston we
     heard various reports of the operations of the enemy on the railroad between 
    Weldon and Petersburg.  WE could hear but little satisfactory intelligence at 
    Weldon.  We came on to Jarratt’s Junction.  The enemy had burned the depot 
    and several residences, together with outhouses and torn up the track.  A 
    considerable engagement was had between the enemy and a small force 
    (two companies) of our troops.  The enemy was at first repulsed but bringing 
    up artillery and over powering numbers, dispersed our men.  Several of the 
    enemy lost their lives in the fray.  We saw their graves.  We marched from 
    Jarratt’s Junction to Stoney Creek at which place we arrived at 11:00 at night. 
    We found it difficult in crossing the Nottoway River and Stoney Creek after dark 
    on the remains of the destroyed bridges.
    Tuesday, May 10, 1864
    Last night after getting to Stony Creek, we snatched a little sleep.  This morning 
    at daylight we took the train and got to Petersburg about 8:00.  We moved out 
    on the Richmond Turnpike towards Swift Creek where the fighting had been 
    going on for some time past.  We were turned to the left at the factory and 
    after going about two miles were stopped and awaited further orders.  Heard 
    heavy cannon fire towards Drewry’s Bluff.  Many rumors afloat but none of them 
    tangible.  At dusk we saw fires to the northward like fences and wood burning.
    The Landmark, July 3, 1924
    Wednesday, May 11, 1864
    Early this morning, we moved back to the turnpike where, after resting a 
    considerable time, the arrangements for a forward movement were completed.  
    We moved slowly and cautiously along the pike some six or seven miles 
    where, after throwing out a strong picket, we lay down on the side of the road 
    to sleep.  We had today seen many indications of the recent fights—graves, 
    arms and pieces of arms and accoutrements, shelled houses and trees riddled 
    by bullets.
    Thursday, May 12, 1864
    Moved early from our bivouacs to the halfway house where General Hoke’s 
    division was massed for a while in a field.  Heavy showers of rain fell on us 
    while there.  Soon the enemy was reported advancing and a line of battle was 
    formed and the skirmishers thrown out.  Picket firing soon commenced and a 
    few shots were fired by our artillery.  Our brigade was soon ordered up the river 
    road to the fortifications in front of Drewry’s Bluff.  We found Hagood’s S.C. 
    brigade already there.  A considerable picket firing occurred in the vicinity of 
    the halfway house (an old hotel) after we left.  A lieutenant of the 24th N.C. 
    Regiment was killed and several men on our right were wounded.  Our artillery 
    fired during the evening but elicited no reply from the artillery of the enemy—
    from northern Virginia we hear of a heavy cavalry fight between General J.E.B. 
    Stuart and the enemy on the Brooke Turnpike yesterday—Brigadier Generals 
    Micah Jenkins of S.C., J.R. Jones and L.A. Stafford of Louisiana were killed and 
    Lt. General Longstreet wounded in the recent battle sin northern Virginia.
    Friday, May 13, 1864
    This morning I relieved Company D on picket.  One company from each 
    regiment formed the brigade line of skirmishers, the whole under the 
    command of Col. Johnston of the 35th Regiment.  WE soon moved our line 
    one quarter of a mile to the front.  Soon after this, all our brigade but five 
    companies of the 25th were moved to another part of the lines and Lt. Col. 
    Johnston was relieved by Major W.S. Grady of the 25th.  Major Grady made 
    some changes on our lines.  Showers of rain fell on us nearly all day.  We did 
    not fire any during the day although firing had commenced early to our right 
    and continued with little intermission all day.  At night we heard that our brigade 
    had been engaged during the day.  The 56th Regiment was said to have lost 
    many.  Capt. Durham, our regimental quartermaster, was severely wounded.
    Saturday, May 14, 1864
    Last night we took every precaution against surprise.  This morning, firing
    commenced early and before long had the opportunity of firing at the 
    sharpshooters.  The battle on our right waxed hotter and hotter, the enemy 
    charging our works repeatedly.  The right of our line (the company from the 
    24th and the right of my company) became heavily engaged.  Finally the 
    enemy advanced in line of battle and as previously instructed, our line fell back.  
    It was raining hard at the time and the order to fall back not being promptly 
    passed along the line, some confusion and disorder took place.  The left of our 
    line observed that he right had already retreated a considerable distance.  We 
    rallied under a hill in the rear of our breastworks and got ammunition and rations 
    both of which we greatly needed.  We moved back by Drewry’s house and woods 
    near Mr. Gregory’s residence.  This was as near our brigade as it was dared 
    prudent for us to go until dark and as we much needed sleep and rest we were 
    ordered to stay here until dawn in the morning.  Our regiment had suffered 
    considerably today, a good many being killed and wounded while skirmishing.  
    General Ransom (M.W.)  was severely wounded in the left arm today.  Capt. 
    J.P. Ardrey and Lt. S.H. Elliott of Company F were wounded today, the former 
    left on the field.  Lt. W. Linebarger of Company H was mortally wounded.  Pte. 
    Tevepaugh of Company F was killed.  The other casualties we have not learned.  
    Capt. Durham who was wounded day before yesterday had his left arm 
    amputated today.
    Sunday, May 15, 1864
    This morning early we joined our respective regiments in the breast works.  
    Ransom Sides of my company was wounded in the head by a fragment of a 
    shell and James Thomas struck in the back by a gun which was violently thrown 
    against him by a shell. After dark, several wounded men who had been left on 
    the field yesterday were brought in—Pte. Howard of Company F and one or two 
    others.  Capt. Ardrey could not be recovered, he being too near the enemy.  Dr. 
    Good, assistant surgeon of our regiment, and J.A. Elliott of my company were, 
    we learned this morning, captured by the enemy on the 15th inst.
    Monday, May 16, 1864
    Last night we got orders to move this morning at 3:00.  this we did and soon 
    after daybreak were in our places in our works under fired.  The morning was 
    densely foggy and our movements were veiled from the enemy.   General 
    Beauregard was in person on the field.  Soon the 24th and 49th were ordered 
    to the right of the turnpike (looking south towards Petersburg) to protect the 
    right flank of Bushrod Johnson’s brigade, which was heavily engaged in our front.  
    We moved through a thick woods and came upon the enemy’s first line of works, 
    charged, drove the enemy from our front.  Our right flank was unprotected and 
    the enemy’s works enabled them to pour a terrible enfilading fire upon us—we 
    turned up the works, drove the enemy, caused him to lose his colors and we 
    had nearly reached them when a new and stronger line of battle moved up.  
    By this time, our men were thinned by the terrific fire to which they were subject 
    and in endeavoring to reinforce our right, from the left, several companies had 
    become mixed or blended and then lost all separate organization.  We retired 
    to the woods where Major Davis reformed the regiments (Col. McAfee having 
    been wounded and Lt. Col. Flemming having been left on picket) and moved 
    forward again.
    Major Davis ordered me to throw out my company as skirmishers to the right 
    to protect the right flank of the regiment.  The volley from the enemy’s works 
    made the trees rattle around us.  Our regiment advanced, and, owing to the 
    success of our arms on the left, the enemy retreated and the regiment 
    occupied the works it had taken in the morning.  My company was kept on 
    skirmish for some time and it became connected with Company D and part 
    of Company I, the whole of which I commanded.  This line connected with a 
    part of Captain Bailey’s company from the 24th, who commanded the whole.  
    After the enemy had been driven from his second line of works (or rather our 
    first line which had been given up as untenable several days ago and which 
    the enemy had taken possession of, no doubt thinking it was a great feat), 
    our companies were ordered to report to their respective regiments.  In this 
    day’s action, Col. McAfee was slightly wounded.  Lt. W.P. Barrett of 
    Company H and Lt. H.C. Conley of Company A were killed.  Capt. G.W. 
    Lytle of A was mortally wounded.  Lt. Daniel Lattimore of Company B and 
    Lt. B.F. Dixon of Company G were slightly wounded.  In my company, 
    Privates Wylie B. Daniel and James A. Safriet were killed, Sgt. R.A. Stone, 
    Corp. W. Henry Thompson, Pte. Daniel Bailey, Lawson Cross, John A. Hall, 
    E.C. Lentz, Matthew Plummer, John M. Strikeleather, Wm. O. Styers, Wm. 
    A.. Thompson, were wounded and sent off.  Marion Musk(?) Masle(?) was 
    slightly wounded in the shoulder but remained on duty.  Jacob Freeze was 
    stunned but in a few hours returned to duty.  Edward Wise is missing, 
    supposed to be wounded.  Before sunset, we moved to the left,  and 
    bivouacked for the night.  President Davis and General Beauregard were 
    walking around and inspecting the works.  Capt. Ardrey’s body was recovered 
    this evening and brought to camp tonight.  The enemy had been driven at all 
    points and we were masters of the field.  We lost many brave men in killed 
    and wounded.  On our extreme right, General Robert Ransom had captured a 
    brigadier general (Hickman of  Massachusetts) and the greater portion of his 
    brigade.  We needed our brigadier today.  Our regiment was badly handled.
    The Landmark, July 7, 1924
    Tuesday, May 17, 1864
    We moved out cautiously today following the enemy.  We were moving 
    nearer all day.  We saw some shelling between some of our heavy land 
    batteries and what was supposed to be enemy gun boats.  Camped in the 
    dark and had rather an unpleasant ground for sleeping, the woods having 
    been burned.  Heard the Yankees bands and drums plainly this evening.  
    I am 23 today.
    Wednesday, May 18, 1864
    Last night we were roused by picket firing and got under arms in a short time.  
    The excitement was soon over and the men sank to rest where they were.  
    We threw up breast works today.  In the evening, General Beauregard rode
     by us.  Some picket firing and shelling today.
    Tuesday, May 19, 1864
    Slept all night for once.  Remained at our works all day.  The enemy threw 
    some very large shells, supposed to be from their gun boats.
    Friday, May 20, 1864
    Last night a little after dark, there was brisk picket firing.  When this was 
    over, our regiment was moved along the works to the right a little more than 
    the length of itself.  Several times during the night, we were aroused by 
    picket firing.  This morning I was placed in charge of my own and Company 
    F and ordered to report to the lieutenant colonel of the 35th N.C.T., for picket 
    duty.  We were some time in reaching our position, about 10:30 a brisk 
    picket firing commenced on the right and continued for an hour.  In a short
     time, it commenced again as furious as ever.  Before long, Major Davis of 
    our regiment assumed command of the whole line of our brigade with orders 
    to advance it.  We moved forward and continued to do so until the companies 
    from our regiment were compelled to stop because we were unsupported on 
    either flank.  This was after some time rectified and moving forward, we drove 
    the enemy from his rifle pits and occupied them.  The 35th N.C. came up as 
    support, sending five companies to the right and bringing three to our part of 
    the line.  Soon after this the enemy advanced in strong force on our right, 
    driving our men.  They also moved up on our front, and poured a hot fire into 
    us.  The right fell back and this compelled us to do likewise.  Some 
    confusion ensued in our skirmish line owing to the fact that the 35th had 
    moved up on it and the men became mingled.  We fell back in some 
    confusion to the rifle pits we had first occupied in the morning.  General 
    Bushrod Johnson (in whose division we are now, he having been promoted) 
    appeared on the field during the fight.  Samuel S. Benson and James Jordan 
    of my company were wounded today—the former severely in the head and 
    the latter very slightly in the back.
    Saturday, May 21, 1864
    Had an undisturbed rest last night.  This morning we moved a little to the left 
    and threw up fortifications.
    Sunday, May 22, 1864
    Lay in breast works all day.  Were relieved at sunset by the 25th N.C.
    Monday, May 23, 1864
    Ours and Wise’s brigades rested in the works all day.
    Tuesday, May 24, 1864
    We relieved the 56th N.C. Regiment this morning on the front line.  We 
    worked hard on the fortifications today, changing them.
    Wednesday, May 25, 1864
    In the evening I was detailed officer of the day for the brigade and had charge 
    of the whole line of skirmishers for our brigade.  Our regiment moved a little 
    further along the line of the works to the right.  Several flags of truce passed 
    between the lines today.
    Thursday, May 26, 1864
    Last night at 10:00 there was some picket firing on our right.  Our regiment 
    did some additional work on the fortifications.  Several flags of truce passed 
    the lines today.
    Friday, May 27, 1864
    Worked on the fortifications all day.
    Saturday, May 28, 1864
    Were relieved this morning by the 25th N.C. under Major Grady—went to the 
    rear.  Capt. George L. Phifer of “K” and Lt. J.M. Higgins of “A” and I were 
    appointed a board of survey to examine and report on some oil in charge of 
    Major C. Drewry, Brigade Quartermaster.
    Sunday, May 29, 1864
    Returned to the front lines and relieved the 35th N.C.
    Monday, May 30, 1864
    Worked on the fortifications.  At 5:00 we had artillery firing along our whole 
    line, commenced by our battery.  Two men of Company A who were on 
    picket were stunned by a shell bursting near them.  This morning we heard 
    heavy firing to the north—again in the evening, much nearer.
    Tuesday, May 31, 1864
    Moved along the works to the right at daybreak this morning.  At 1:00 we had 
    another artillery duel.
    Wednesday, June 1, 1864
    Last night at 2:00 another artillery duel was fought between the opposing batteries.  
    This morning I was sent with my company and Company F, on picket.  Our picket 
    lines at this point are within 30 yards of each other.  All went quietly during the day.
    The Landmark, July 12, 1924
    Tuesday, June 2, 1864
    Last night at 10:00 our batteries fired for some time—no response by the enemy.  
    Lts. Bowers and Krider supervised in the fore part, Lt. Thompson and I in the after 
    This morning before time for our relief to come, our line of skirmishers received 
    orders at a given time to advance.  In front of my own company, the enemy 
    made very little resistance.  My men over ran the pits and went beyond them, 
    driving the enemy and capturing many.  Sgt. John Geisler captured a captain.  
    A lieutenant and squad of men surrendered to Sgt. Barger and I.  I now have 
    the lieutenant’s sword, which he delivered to me.  
    In front of Company F the enemy fought better.  It was not until my company 
    had passed through their lines and flanked them, thus permitting Company K 
    (which had now come up to support us) to move down their rifle pits. In taking 
    this part of the line, Capt. George Phifer of Company K was wounded.  He had 
    lost in his company two men killed and one wounded.  Company F had one 
    killed, five wounded, some of them very severely.  My company escaped 
    almost miraculously without a single man being touched.  We advanced 
    100 yards or more beyond the rifle pits of the enemy until we reached the 
    felled timber in front of their main fortification.  The pickets of the 25th N.C. 
    immediately on our right did the same.  To their right, the rifle pits of the 
    enemy were not taken.  On our left, the lines were finally carried, I understand, 
    along the whole left of our works.  
    After the firing was over, we were ordered to fall back and establish our line 
    where that of the enemy had been.  Soon after this, Companies D, and I, 
    came out and relieved my company (C) and F.  Company A had previously 
    come out as a support.  The wounded on both sides were now carried back 
    to our ambulance corps and the dead buried.  The enemy were armed with 
    Spencer Repeating Rifles which will fire eight times without reloading.  We 
    took quite a number of them with accoutrements and cartridges to suit.  We 
    were relieved and returned to the breast works where we had to endure a few 
    hours shelling from the enemy. Shortly after this, our men were driven back 
    to our old line and all (at least in our front) that had been gained in the morning 
    was lost.  For some time after this the picket firing was very heavy and we were 
    lead to expect an attack on our own line, if not on our main line.  
    Friday, June 3, 1864
    We moved a little to the left today.  Late in the evening, we heard a very heavy 
    firing by the artillery and small arms to the north.  It continued until some time 
    after dark.  There was a great deal of noise made in the Yankee lines about 
    8:00 by drums and artillery horns.
    Saturday, June 4, 1864
    Last night about 11:00 there was heavy picket firing along the whole line.  
    The enemy was reported as massing in the field in front of the 35th Regiment.  
    After a while the firing ceased.  The sentinels reported that there seemed to 
    be movements going on among the enemy all night.  This morning, early, we 
    were ordered to march—crossed the James on a pontoon bridge at Drewry’s 
    Bluff and marched all day.  Bivouacked within two miles of Batton Bridge.  
    Major General Robert Ransom was here and we are under him now.
    Sunday, June 5, 1864
    Our regiment and the (illegible) regiment moved to the York River Railroad 
    bridge over the Chickahominy and threw up rifle pits.  General(?) W.C. 
    Wickham of the cavalry and General Custis or Fitz Lee (I did not learn for 
    certain which) rode by this morning.  During the day, General R.E. Lee 
    himself and Major General Ransom rode by.
    Monday, June 6, 1864
    A detail threw up rifle pits today.
    Tuesday, June 7, 1864
    With my company, we relieved Company A on the picket line this morning. 
    Had a quiet day on the banks of the Chickahominy.  Late in the evening
     there was a little picket firing to the left of my company.
    Wednesday, June 8, 1864
    We were relieved at daylight by Company F.
    Thursday, June 9, 1864
    Remained quietly in camp all day. Prepared to go on picket early tomorrow 
    morning.  We hear that the enemy is making a demonstration against 
    Friday, June 10, 1864
    Last night we were relieved by Kirkland’s Brigade.  We, however, remained 
    on the ground until daybreak this morning when the brigade was collected 
    at General Ransom’s quarters.  Here we were ordered to await further orders. 
     In the morning paper we find an account of the expedition of the enemy 
    which well night took Petersburg.  It was repulsed only when it had reached 
    the very suburbs of the city.  We returned to some woods for the night.  At 
    dark, we got orders to be ready to move at a moment’s notice.
    Saturday, June 11, 1864
    At daybreak this morning we were up and shortly after sunrise, we, 
    together with the whole brigade, started for the vicinity of Chafin’s Bluff.  
    After a tolerably dusty and hard march we reached our destination about 
    2:00.  In the evening I was ordered to report at regimental headquarters 
    with my company.  We had to await Capt. Pegram, A.A.C., and when he 
    came he said he would not need us so we returned to our quarters.
    Monday, June 12, 1864
    Went on picket about two miles from camp.  Had a quiet time of it 
    The Landmark, July 14, 1924
    Monday, June 13, 1864
    This morning while busy writing, orders came for the company to leave 
    immediately.  I soon learned, however, that the order was “to be ready to 
    move very promptly.”  We awaited orders to move all day.  My company 
    had previously been relieved on picket by Company D.  Lt. Krider was 
    quite unwell tonight.
    Tuesday, June 14, 1864
    This morning, Lt. Thompson and I, having gotten permission—visited the 
    defenses in this vicinity.  They are, in my simple judgment, very strong and, 
    if properly manned, it seems they could not be taken.  But this war has so 
    often proved that places formerly deemed impregnable could be taken so I 
    have lost much confidence in the so called impregnable position.  We saw 
    our iron clad boats and the fleet of wooden gunboats. This evening we had 
    dress parade conducted by Lt. Col. J.A. Flemming.
    Wed., June 15, 1864
    Got marching orders.  Left at dark going towards Drewry’s Bluff.
    Thursday, June 16, 1864
    Marched all last night.  Got to Petersburg about 8:00.  About 10:00 we moved 
    out towards Avery’s farm.  Had a long double quick to reach our words before 
    the enemy.  We were subjected to the severest and closest shelling that I 
    have ever experienced.  We had to get on the outside of our works to protect 
    us from the shells of the enemy which enfiladed our position.  In the evening, 
    we, the 49th, marched towards Swift Creek.  We then joined the 56th N.C. 
    and Gracie’s Brigade.
    Friday, June 17, 1864
    Marched until midnight last night. Bivouacked on one side of the road after 
    having communicated with Longstreet’s Corps.  Early this morning we passed 
    the portion of the railroad destroyed yesterday by the enemy and took the train 
    for Petersburg.  Last night a considerable portion of General Bushrod Johnson’s 
    old brigade was captured and a good many pieces of artillery, or rather, I 
    should say, this was done early this morning before we got back to 
    Petersburg.  Today we threw up a line of rifle pits in the rear of Avery’s farm.  
    Late this evening, in fact after dark, a heavy engagement occurred on our left.  
    Wise’s brigade was forced back and our brigade was moved to the left.  Our
    regiment was ordered back to occupy the line previously held by our whole 
    brigade and consequently, did not get into the fight in which our brigade 
    participated.  Col. Jones of the 35th was killed.  Lt. Col. Bayson of the 25th 
    was wounded. Capt. Blackwell of the 35th was killed and others whose names 
    I have not yet learned.
    Saturday, June 18, 1864
    Last night we evacuated our lines near Avery’s farm and took up a shorter 
    and better one near Petersburg.  We threw up works until the enemy appeared.  
    We burned a house in our front.  Company K of our regiment had a sharp 
    skirmish in which Lt. Ed Phifer was seriously wounded.  Our skirmishers 
    retired before a superior force.  Some sharp shooting during the day.  Heard 
    last night or today Captain Frank N. Roberts of the 56th was killed and 
    Captain Frank R Alexander of the same regiment was mortally wounded.  
    Major Graham of the 56th was wounded.  Col. Jones of the 35th did not die 
    until this morning.  We were relieved last night by Jenkins’ (S.C.) brigade.  
    Had a dangerous time coming out.  Rested today near Blandford Cemetery.
    Monday, June 20, 1864
    Rested until dark when we relieved the 35th which is now commanded by 
    Major Davis or our regiment. Drew some clothing.
    The Landmark, July 17, 1924
    Tuesday, June 21, 1864
    Supported Colquitt’s brigade today.  Tonight we relieved the 27th Georgia in 
    the front trenches.
    Wednesday, June 22, 1864
    Yankee sharpshooters very annoying.  George M. Ritchie of my company 
    was severely wounded in the morning.  The sun was very warm.
    Thursday, June 23, 1864
    Lay all day in the trenches.  I was placed in charge of the line of the pickets
     for Colquitt’s (Ga.) brigade tonight.
    Friday, June 24, 1864
    Hagood’s brigade on our left charged—to the rifle pits—to have taken their 
    works but were not properly supported—fell back, losing a good many prisoners.  
    While this charge was being made, our right was sharp shooting and James 
    Thomas of my company was shot in the head and instantly killed.
    Saturday, June 25, 1864
    Had a terrible hot and disagreeable time in the trenches today.  We were 
    relieved by the 27th Georgia tonight.
    Sunday, June 26, 1864
    Rested all day
    Monday, June 27, 1864
    Lt. Thompson and I visited Petersburg and our wagons.  J.B. Cole of my 
    company was wounded in the head by a stray ball.
    Tuesday, June 28, 1864
    Lay quietly resting all day.
    Wednesday, June 29, 1864
    I visited our wagons and got to see Ritchie and Cole.  Found them both, as I 
    thought, doing very well.  At dark our regiment relieved the 25th on the front 
    Thursday, June 30, 1864
    In the trenches, working on the ditches.
    Friday, July 1, 1864
    Still working on our trenches, nothing of consequence occurred during the day.
    Saturday, July 2, 1864
    Same as yesterday.  We do most of our sleeping in the daylight.  There is so 
    much passing along in the trenches, so much work, so many “fatigue” duties 
    and so many men of my company to be kept awake, that there is very little 
    chance during the night to sleep.
    Sunday, July 3, 1864
    I was detailed on an “examining board” with Major T.D. Love of the 24th and 
    Adjutant Robert B. Peebles of the 35th to examine candidates for promotion.  
    We met at Major Love’s quarters and examined five candidates.
    Monday, July 4, 1864
    Grand day for Yankee jubilee.  They were to have had a grand time of it in 
    Richmond today, as indeed, they have promised themselves for the last three 
    successive fourths of July.  In our front they exhibited large, new, fine flags 
    and in the evening, away on our right, gave some prolonged cheers.
    Tuesday, July 5, 1864
    Continued our examinations.
    Wednesday, July 6, 1864
    Being through with our examinations, we adjourned.  I have been quite 
    unwell yesterday, last night and today.
    Thursday, July 7, 1864
    Got permission to go to our wagons.  Capt. Dixon and I went together—
    drew our pay—took a wash in the Appomattox and put on clean clothes 
    and then worked on our muster and pay rolls.  Being unwell, by the advise 
    of Col. Flemming, I concluded to rest a day or two and consequently did 
    not return to the regiment tonight.
    Friday, July 8, 1864
    Worked on the muster and pay rolls.  Heard heavy cannonading.  Lt. 
    Krider of my company came up wounded (not dangerously) in the right 
    shoulder with a small piece of shell.  Our forces had opened, at 5:00 p.m., 
    with artillery and musketry on the lines of the enemy, it is supposed, with 
    a view to making them display their fire.
    The Landmark, July 21, 1924
    Saturday, July 9, 1864
    Finished my rolls and attended to some other business.  Went back to 
    the regiment.
    Sunday, July 10, 1864
    Had the pay rolls signed today.  The usual routine of shelling and sharp 
    Monday, July 11, 1864
    Brought my company out and supplied it with clothing.  Gave my muster 
    and pay rolls to Captain Barnes, A.Q.M., of the 56th Regiment for his 
    Tuesday, July 12, 1864
    Came up in the evening and got money for my company.  Paid many of 
    my men.  
    Wednesday, July 13, 1864
    Brought my company to wash.  Feeling quite badly.  Got excused by the 
    doctor and did not return to the regiment.
    Thursday, July 14, 1864
    Lay around recuperating.  Nothing of consequence today.  Our regiment 
    was relieved from the front lines last night and is now in reserve.  It had been 
    on the front lines for fourteen days and nights.
    Friday, July 15, 1864
    Still an invalid.  Got a notification of the death of James Miller of my company.  
    He died on the 25th June of typhoid fever at Winder Hospital in Richmond.  
    Yankee prisoners captured today say Washington City was captured on the 
    12th inst., by our forces.
    Saturday, July 16, 1864
    Nothing of consequence happened today within my knowledge.  Was busy 
    writing most of the time.
    Sunday, July 17, 1864
    Went to High Street Episcopal Church—the only one open in the city.  
    Heard a most excellent sermon by Rev. Mr. Gibson.  Went again at 5:00 
    in the evening and heard a sermon by another minister whose name I failed 
    to learn.
    Monday, July 18, 1864
    Went to the company early this morning.  Fund them in a good position.
    Tuesday, July 19, 1864
    Was detailed as regimental officer of the day.  Nothing unusual today.
    Wednesday, July 20, 1864
    Had a rainy day.  The trenches were very disagreeable.  The mud was red, 
    slippery and unpleasant.
    Thursday, July 21, 1864
    Nothing unusual today.  Three years ago today the famous 1st Battle of 
    Manassas was fought and I was marching through Richmond for the first 
    time.  (Got dates wrong.  There seems to be an entry suiting July 22.  
    Last foregoing sentence was under that date but of course, belongs to the 
    21st.  This, March 1, 1903.  H.A.C.)
    Saturday, July 23, 1864
    Moved position last night.  My company came out to wash today.  Capt. 
    J.C. Greer was wounded today in the arm and thigh by a mortar shell.
    Sunday, July 24, 1864
    Our regiment came out last night in reserve to rest, being relieved by the 
    24th.  Capt. Harris, Lt. Lindsey and I went to Petersburg to church.  Heard 
    Rev. Mr. Girardeau of Charleston in the morning and Rev. Mr. Gibson of the 
    Episcopal Church in the evening.
    Monday, July 25, 1864
    Made out muster and pay rolls today. Our regiment went on the front lines 
    Tuesday, July 26, 1864
    Nothing of consequence today.
    The Landmark, July 28, 1924
    Monday, August 1, 1864
    Nothing unusual today.  The board of exam to which I belong, was ordered 
    to meet today at 9:00.  However, owing to the expectations of a mine being 
    sprung by our men, it did not meet.  The mine was not sprung. My company 
    got out to wash today.
    Tuesday, August 2, 1864
    Board of exam met and examined several candidates for promotion.
    Wednesday, August 3, 1864
    Board finished work.  I returned to duty.
    Thursday, August 4, 1864
    Was officer of the day for the whole division.  So scarce are field officers that 
    captains are selected for this purpose.  John N. Carpenter and Turner P. 
    Thompson, conscripts, came to my company today.  We spring a mine on 
    Gracie’s front this evening.
    Friday, August 5, 1864
    Nothing of consequence was but mine was sprung yesterday.  Time will tell 
    whether our objective was attained or not. It was to counteract the enemy’s 
    mining operations.
    Saturday, August 6, 1864
    Nothing of consequence today.
    Sunday, August 7, 1864
    All quiet today.
    Monday, August 8, 1864
    Same as yesterday.  Our men are sinking drop augers along our lines to 
    discover any mine the enemy may be making.
    Tuesday, August 9, 1864
    We came out last night, being relieved by the 24th N.C.  Had some close 
    shelling from the enemy mortars.
    Wednesday, August 10, 1864
    My company went to the rear to wash today.
    Thursday, August 11, 1864
    Remained in reserve in the rear of Gracie’s Brigade, subjected to, as usual, 
    mortar shells.
    Friday, August 12, 1864
    This evening we returned to the front lines, taking a position on the extreme 
    left of the brigade.
    Saturday, August 13, 1864
    All was quiet today until about the middle of the afternoon when our batteries 
    opened, eliciting a very severe mortar shelling from the enemy.  Pte. James 
    Jordan of my company was wounded in the right foot by a shell.
    Sunday, August 14, 1864
    Lt. Thomas R. Roulhac and I, having gotten permission, went to church in 
    Petersburg.  In the morning we went to St. Paul’s (Dr. Platt’s) Episcopal 
    Church.  Here we heard fine music and a good sermon.  Lt. General A.P. 
    Hill, Major General (Rev.) W.N. Pendleton and another general whom I did not 
    know were at this service.  In the evening, we attended service at the 
    Washington Street Presbyterian Church, Rev. Mr. Girardeau of Charleston, 
    now a chaplain in the army, preached one of the most forcible and excellent 
    sermons I have ever listened to.  It rained this evening making the trenches 
    very disagreeable.
    Monday, August 15, 1864
    In the trenches—nothing unusual.
    Tuesday, August 16, 1864
    Was today appointed with Capt. Graves and Capt. Graham of the 56th 
    Regiment on a board to examine candidates for promotion in the brigade.  
    The board did not meet today in consequence of the absence of Capt. 
    Wednesday, August 17, 1864
    The board examined seven candidates today.
    Thursday, August 18, 1864
    Rain yesterday, rain today again. The board was again in session today.
    Friday, August 19, 1864
    This morning about 2:00 all our batteries opened fire and kept it up for some
     time.  This was the case last night and the night before.  A battle was fought 
    on the Weldon Railroad today.  The enemy have moved around and occupied 
    that road in force and our men were unable today to dislodge them.  The 
    reserves of our division are held in readiness to go at once to that portion of 
    the line. The board did not meet today.
    Saturday, August 20, 1864
    Yesterday evening, Clingman’s N.C. and Colquitt’s Brigade fought the enemy 
    near the Weldon Railroad and though they drove the enemy, were unable to 
    dislodge them from the road.  Our brigade and Hagood’s were relieved by 
    Clingman’s and Colquitt’s and sent to report to Lt. General A.P. Hill on our 
    right.  A general court martial of which I am a member and which was ordered 
    by Gen. Beauregard met today.  We did not transact any business but 
    adjourned to meet at 9:00 Monday next.
    Sunday, August 21, 1864
    Early this morning, cannon fire became heavy away on the right towards the 
    Weldon Railroad.  It continued until nearly noon. Everyone was sure a battle 
    was going on and they were not mistaken.  Lt. Gen. Hill attacked the enemy 
    this morning.  Our brigade was engaged heavily.  It charged and took two lines 
    of works besides the picket lines.  The third line was assaulted but, it being 
    considered too formidable to carry by direct assault, our forces were ordered
     to withdraw to the second captured line.  It was with great difficulty that our 
    men were stopped.  They were filled with success and were for pushing right 
    ahead.  When our men began to retire to the position designated, the artillery 
    of the enemy opened with terrible effect in our ranks.  Then it was that our 
    brigade suffered so severely. Being on court martial, I was not with my command 
    in the affair.  I attended services at Washington Street Presbyterian Church.  
    When I returned from the morning service our infirmary presented a ghastly sight.  
    Men were lying around wounded in almost every conceivable form.  The wounds 
    have been principally caused by shells and were unusually severe.  Among the 
    wounded I found Sgt. John Geisler and Corps. F.H. Mauney and J.A. Lyerly of  
    my company—and among the killed, or rather, who had died from their wounds 
    after being brought to the infirmary was Corp. W. Henry Thompson.  Sgt. Geisler 
    was very severely wounded.  Corps. Mauney and Lyerly were painfully but not 
    dangerously wounded.  Corp. Thompson had both knees broken by a shell.
    The Landmark, July 31, 1924
    Monday, August 22, 1864
    The court martial met pursuant to adjournment and proceeded to Major 
    Randolph’s quarters where a room had been provided.  Owing to a difficulty 
    in procuring a guard, the prisoners could not be brought before the court in 
    time for action.  In consequence, the court martial adjourned to meet at 9:00 
    tomorrow morning.  All quiet in the lines today.
    Tuesday, August 23, 1864
    The court met and proceeded to business.  At 2:00 it adjourned.  I was busy 
    all evening writing.
    Wednesday, August 24, 1864
    Court met at the time designated.  After remaining in session for several hours,
    it adjourned.
    Thursday, August 25, 1864
    Last night Jacob Freeze of my company was brought to the infirmary badly 
    wounded with a shell fragment in the head.  A large piece of skull bone was
    taken out by the shell but the shell could not be found.  It was supposed to 
    be in his head.  Poor fellow!  The surgeons say he cannot possibly live.  At 
    a later hour, James H. Robinson of my company and Freeze’s brother-in-law 
    was brought up also wounded in the head.  He belonged to the brigade 
    pioneer corps and was some distance to the rear when a Minnie ball struck 
    him above the left eye.  His wound is not considered dangerous.  The court 
    met at the custom house at the appointed time and remained in session 
    several hours.  This morning, Edward Wise of my company who had been 
    home on a wounded furlough, returned, bringing with him a recruit, a young 
    man named John W. McDaniel.  Mr. Wetmore, an Episcopal minister from 
    Rowan Co., N.C., who is now on a visit to the army, preached near the infirmary 
    this evening.  Mr. Nicholson (our chaplain) and I went to prayer meeting in the 
    city this evening.  A very heavy and continuous cannon fire was heard to the 
    south about sunset this evening.  It was apparently five or six miles distant.
    Friday, August 26, 1864
    The news this morning is that General A.P. Hill attacked the enemy 
    near Ream’s Station yesterday evening, capturing 2,000 prisoners and 
    eight pieces of artillery.  No particulars of the fight was given.  The court 
    met today at the appointed hour and proceeded to business.  We 
    remained in session several hours and adjourned.  In the evening, while 
    Lt. Bowers and I were taking a tramp through the city, we saw two large 
    batches of prisoners captured yesterday evening.  In one of the parties 
    there were over 600 prisoners.
    Saturday, August 27, 1864
    Court met at the appointed time but had to move to Blandford Cemetery.  
    This took up a great deal of time and we got very little business 
    Sunday, August 28, 1864
    Lt. Bowers and I went at 9:00 to the Roman Catholic Church and at 
    11:00 went to St. Paul’s Episcopal Church and heard Major General 
    W.N. Pendleton of the artillery.  At 5:00 Col. McAfee and I rode down 
    and heard Dr. John Miller.
    Monday, August 29, 1864
    The court met at the appointed hour.  Capt. Graves of the 56th N.C. 
    and Smith of the 26th Virginia appeared and took their places as 
    members of the court.  Nothing else unusual occurred today.  Mr. 
    Ortho Lyerly and Mrs. Mary Freeze, wife of Joseph, late of my 
    company, (who died last Saturday) arrived last night.  Their intention 
    was to get here before Freeze died but they were too late.  They had 
    his body taken up today and are starting home with it tomorrow.
    Tuesday, August 30, 1864
    Capt. E. Bostick, our judge advocate, having been taken sick and gone 
    to the hospital, we were this morning without anyone to carry on the 
    business of the court.  The new judge advocate had not arrived.  We 
    did not business today.  
    Wednesday, August 31, 1864
    The court met at 8:30 and sat until 3:00.  It was rather a long session. 
    My company—Lt. Krider commanding—came out today to wash.
    Thursday, Sept. 1, 1864
    The court met as usual and remained in business until 2:00.  This 
    morning about 10:00 the enemy commenced shelling our lines.  
    Our batteries replied.  This was kept up for several hours.  In the 
    evening, I hard the Rev. C.B. Wetmore of Rowan preach to the sick 
    Friday, Sept. 2, 1864
    Nothing of any consequence occurred today.  The court martial met 
    and sat as usual.  In the evening, I wrote some letters.  Last night 
    S.S. Benson and J.J. Strikeleather of my company, got her and this 
    morning W. Thompson arrived.
    Saturday, Sept. 3, 1864
    The court met as usual.  Nothing of consequence occurred today.
    Sunday, Sept. 4, 1864
    Attended church at St. Paul’s in the morning and New Market Methodist 
    and Washington Street Presbyterian in the evening.  Heard Rev. Mr. 
    Wetmore in the morning and the presiding elder (name not known) at the 
    Methodist Church and Rev. Dr. Miller at the Presbyterian.
    Monday, Sept. 5, 1864
    The court entered upon no business today.  A little after noon it adjourned.
    Tuesday, Sept. 6, 1864
    The court met pursuance to adjournment and proceeded to business.  
    After the trial of two cases the court adjourned—last night a rumor afloat 
    that Atlanta had been (illegible word, re-taken?) with 30,000 prisoners 
    and a loss to us of 10,000 men.  It was only night before last that we 
    heard Atlanta had fallen.  General Hood has been COMPELLED to do 
    what General Johnston should doubtless have done of his own accord.  
    But be this as it may, Atlanta ahs certainly fallen and Yankeedom will 
    raise an exultant voice of triumph.  Oh!  It is galling to us who had, up 
    to this time, during the year, met with no serious reverses.  The calamity 
    lengthens the duration of this cruel war which we were beginning to think 
    was drawing to a close.  God, for some good purpose, has seen fit to bring 
    this upon us.  Let us submit to His will.
    Wednesday, Sept. 7, 1864
    Nothing of any consequence today.  At least as far as I could learn.
    Thursday, Sept. 8, 1864
    Nothing of consequence today.  The court martial met and deliberated 
    as usual.
    Friday, Sept. 9, 1864
    The court met and proceeded to business as usual.  We remained in 
    session until 2:00.
    Saturday, Sept. 10, 1864
    The court met as usual and after a busy session adjourned to meet on 
    Monday next.  My company was out to wash today.
    Sunday, Sept. 11, 1864
    At 11:00 I heard Rev. Dr. Platt, rector of St. Paul’s Episcopal Church; at 
    3:30 I heard, near the infirmary, Rev. John L. Girardeau, chaplain of the 
    23rd S.C.; at 5:00 I heard at Washington St. Presbyterian Church its 
    pastor Rev. Dr. John Miller.  Thus, I have heard three excellent sermons 
    of the most prominent ministers in the vicinity.
    Monday, Sept. 12, 1864
    The court met as usual and after hearing three cases, adjourned.  A 
    heavy wind blew this evening from the northwest and made it quite cold.  
    I went to prayer meeting tonight at Washington Street Presbyterian 
    Tuesday, Sept. 13, 1864
    This was a day of fasting, humiliation and prayer recommended by the 
    clergymen of Petersburg.  Our court adjourned at an early hour to allow 
    the members to attend services.  I attended the 2nd Presbyterian Church 
    and heard Rev. A.W. Miller.  In the evening, I attended the Union Prayer 
    Meeting at the Washington Street Baptist Church.  All the congregations 
    united there in a prayer meeting.  Several interesting addresses were heard.
    Wednesday, Sept. 14, 1864
    The court met as usual.  About 10:00 a furious shelling occurred in the lines.  
    Many of the shells came near our place of meeting and somewhat disturbed 
    the deliberations of the court.  After about two hours the shelling ceased.
    Thursday, Sept. 15, 1864
    The court met as usual and proceeded to business. Lt. Lindsey of our (4th?)
    Regiment had his trial today.  For several days past I have been reading 
    Wilkie Collins’ novel “No Name”.  I find it very interesting.  The most amusing 
    character is “Yours Truly-Horatio Wragge”, an ex-militia captain.
    The Landmark, August 7, 1924
    The court met as usual.  Captains Graves and Bristow were absent—the former 
    to catch a thief who last night stole his new hat and fine gold watch and the 
    latter attending as a witness in a case at another court martial.  Some changed 
    were made in our lines yesterday evening and last night.  These placed our 
    brigade where Colquitt’s Georgia Brigade of Hoke’s Division has been.
    Saturday, Sept. 17, 1864
    Last night my old hat and vest in the pocket of which was my watch and some 
    other small articles, were stolen out of my tent while I was asleep.  I have not 
    the slightest means of knowing who did it or of getting my property back.  The 
    court met as usual and got through the business for today by noon.  In the 
    evening, I attended a prayer meeting at the Presbyterian Church on Washington 
    Sunday, Sept. 18, 1864
    Both morning and evening I attended services at the 2nd Presbyterian Church 
    (Dr. John Miller’s).  I heard two excellent discourses.  Yesterday we heard that 
    General Hampton of our cavalry had made a raid in the enemy’s rear, capturing 
    2,500 head of beef cattle, a wagon train, several hundred horses and a good 
    many prisoners.  This evening the rumor was confirmed by 2,400 of the cattle 
    being driven through the city.
    Monday, Sept. 19, 1864
    The court met as usual and transacted business until 1:00.  Nothing else of 
    consequence today.
    Tuesday, Sept. 20, 1864
    Nothing momentous took place within the scope of my observation. The court 
    met and transacted business as usual.
    Wednesday, Sept. 21, 1864
    About daylight this morning, a ferocious cannon firing took place along our lines. 
     It was commenced by the enemy for a considerable length of time.  The court 
    met and transacted business as usual.  Today the news brought the melancholy 
    information of the death of General R.E. Rodes of Early’s army.  He was killed in 
    a battle near Winchester.  Tonight we hear that General Early has been badly 
    beaten and his army cut to pieces.  It is to be earnestly hoped that this news is 
    greatly exaggerated.  But bad news is generally true.
    Thursday, Sept. 22, 1864
    The news received last night from General Early was confirmed today in the 
    papers.  Our army was surprised last Monday morning and attacked by a 
    greatly superior force.  After fighting all day, General Early at night fell back 
    some eight miles, bringing off safely all his supply trains and all his stores.  
    We lost three pieces of artillery.  General R.E. Rodes was killed while trying 
    to rally a portion of his division.  Our court met as usual today and soon 
    finished the business set for the day.
    Friday, Sept. 23, 1864
    Nothing unusual today.  Major Stallworth of the court was absent, sick, today.
    Saturday, Sept. 24, 1864
    This morning about 8:00 the enemy shelled the city furiously for a short while.  
    I have heard of no casualties.  The court met and after transacting the business 
    before it, adjourned until 9:00 Monday morning.  A heavy shower of rain fell this 
    evening at 4:30.  This cooled the air which previously had been very hot.  In 
    consequence, too, of the shower, the daily prayer meeting was very poorly 
    attended—not a lady present.
    Sunday, Sept. 25, 1864
    This morning, at 11:00, I, in company with Dr. Watkins and Goode, went to 
    St. Paul’s Episcopal Church and heard a most excellent sermon by its 
    rector Rev. Dr. Platt.  His text were the words “sufficient for the day is the 
    evil thereof”, from Matthew, 6th Chapter, 34th Verse.  Before the sermon 
    was an interesting baptism service.  Brigadier General Stephens (at least I 
    was told it was he) of the Engineers and an infant, the general’s, I think, 
    were baptized.  General R.E. Lee and Brigadier General Alexander of the 
    artillery were among the sponsors or godfathers.  In the congregation was 
    one full general—Lee--, two lieutenant generals—Longstreet and A.P. Hill—
    three major generals—Hoke, Wilcox and Heth—four brigadier generals that I 
    saw—Gracie, Kirkland, Alexander and Stephens.  In the afternoon at 4:30, I 
    went to Grace Church (Episcopal) on High Street to hear its rector Mr. Gibson.  
    He did not preach, however, but some visiting minister—an army chaplain, I
    think—delivered a very fine but brief discourse from the 25th Chapter of St. 
    Monday, Sept. 26, 1864
    The court met for transaction of business as usual. General Hoke’s division 
    was reviewed this evening by General Lee.  At 4:30 I went to Grace Church 
    and heard and excellent discourse by its rector Rev. Churchill J. Gibson, 
    from the words:  “My yoke is easy and my burden is light” from Matthew II, 
    Verse 30.  At night, I attended a concert given at the Virginia Hospital by 
    the musicians of the army for the benefit of the poor of Petersburg.  There 
    was a very large audience and as the tribute cost $5 each a considerable 
    amount of money must have been realized.
    Tuesday, Sept. 27, 1864
    The court met and transacted business as usual. Two cases were disposed 
    of—as I returned to camp I left my watch with Mr. T.R. Hopkins on Byrne 
    Street for repairs.  The thief who stole it enjoyed it.
    The Landmark, August 11, 1924
    Wednesday, Sept. 28, 1864
    Three cases of desertion from the 41st Alabama regiment were disposed of 
    by the court martial today.  In the evening, I went to Grace Church on High 
    Street and heard a sermon by its accomplished rector Rev. C.J. Gibson.  
    My company was to the rear today for washing purposes.  While I write 
    (9:30 p.m.), a brisk musketry and considerable artillery fire is going on 
    along the line, a rather unusual thing for the lines have been remarkably 
    quiet for some time past.
    Thursday, Sept. 29, 1864
    I have not been able to learn the cause of the firing last night.  I presume it 
    was nothing serious or we would have heard of it.  A considerable movement 
    of our troops took place today.  Our (B.R. Johnson’s) division, having been 
    relieved by Hoke’s Division yesterday was suddenly and unexpectedly 
    ordered back this morning to relieve Hoke, a part of Wilcox’s Division, which 
    has gone, and Field’s Division has moved.  The court met and transacted 
    business as usual.
    Friday, Sept. 30, 1864
    All quiet last night.  The court met and worked pretty hard today, disposing 
    of four cases.  Troops have been moved today.  Late in the evening—about 
    sunset—a heavy musketry and artillery fire was heard towards our extreme 
    right.  About dark, a like tumult was raised down towards the Appomattox.  
    No particulars.
    Saturday, October 1, 1864
    This morning it was raining when I woke up.  It had been raining some during 
    the night.  I got my feet and legs wet in going to court—a heavy shower coming 
    on me.  My felt overcoat, however, kept me dry elsewhere.  It has been raining 
    constantly today—now a gentle mist—then a copious shower.  Thus the 
    elements usher in October.  On our extreme right there has been considerable 
    cannon fire all day long.  This evening, heavy and long continued musketry—
    indicating a considerable engagement—and artillery fire is heard in the same 
    direction—the right.  At this writing—twilight—nothing definite ahs been learned.  
    A considerable batch of prisoners passed this place—the wagon yard—this 
    evening, going into the city.  Thus the armies welcome in October.
    Sunday, October 2, 1864
    This morning I went to St. Paul’s Episcopal church and heard its rector, Rev. 
    Dr. Pratt.  At 4:30 I went to Grace Church (Episcopal) and heard its rector 
    Rev. Mr. C.J. Gibson.  On returning from church I found the cook camp in 
    commotion in consequence of an order for all cooks and all sick men who 
    could possibly do anything to report immediately to the trenches.  The cause 
    of this, as far as I could understand it, was that our brigade had to occupy a 
    much larger space than usual on the lines.
    Monday, October 3, 1864
    The court met as usual and tried two cases.  No definite news from the right 
    beyond that contained in the Richmond papers.  This amounts to an advantage
    in position by the enemy and in prisoners for us.  At 4:00 I repaired to Grace 
    Church to witness the ceremony of confirmation delivered by the Bishop.  He 
    (Bishop Johns) delivered a most excellent discourse without taking any 
    particular text.  He is quite a venerable looking man.  It has been cloudy 
    today and late showers of rain.
    Tuesday, October 4, 1864
    A very quiet day.  The court met as usual and after transacting business, 
    adjourned.  The news in the papers is little more than a review of what had 
    been previously published.  General Beauregard, it seems, has been 
    assigned to the command of the whole Southwest (on this side of the 
    Mississippi including the armies of Hood and Taylor).
    Wednesday, October 5, 1864
    The news in the papers today is cheering.  Early is again ready for offensive 
    operations in the valley.  Hood has gotten an advantageous position in 
    Georgia.  Forrest is playing havoc with Sherman’s communications. Price 
    is doing wonders in Missouri.  Last but not least, Echols has, with reserves 
    and detailed men, defeated the enemy in southwestern Virginia and is 
    pursuing them.  The court was engaged today on the case of Lt. Jackson 
    of the 41st Alabama Regiment—Major Nicholas Stallworth of the 2nd Alabama 
    (battalion of sharp shooters) was relieved from the court to give place to Col. 
    B. Hall of the 59th Alabama.  The latter is almost unfit for duty as a 
    consequence of having had his foot amputated this summer.  Hence, the 
    exchange.  Col. Hall did not appear today.  This evening, I attended Divine 
    Services at Mr. Gibson’s (Grace) Church.  Mr. Gibson delivered an excellent 
    sermon—as he always does—from the words “God is Love” found in 1st John, 
    Chapter 4, Verse 8.
    Thursday, Oct. 6, 1864
    The court was engaged today in consideration of the evidence of Lt. J.H. 
    Jackson’s case and in receiving the evidence in the case of Lt. Tarrant of 
    the 4th Alabama.  No important news today.
    Friday, October 7, 1864
    Nothing new today.  The court met and transacted business. The case of Lt. 
    Bruce B. Freeman of the 35th N.C.T. was tried today.  Heard Rev. Mr. Gibson 
    at his church (Grace) on High Street this evening.  Saw my friend Lt. C.R. 
    Jones of the 55th N.C.T.
    Saturday, October 8, 1864
    The court meet and transacted business as usual.  Nothing of great interest 
    occurred today.  The news from the south side of the James is favorable to us.  
    We drove the enemy from several lines of works, leaving them nothing of their 
    recent captured but the isolated battery Harrison.
    The Landmark, Aug. 14, 1924
    Sunday, Oct. 9, 1864
    In the morning, I heard Rev. Dr. Platt of St. Paul’s Church and in the evening 
    Mr. Moses, chaplain in the army who was today occupying Dr. John Miller’s 
    pulpit in the 2nd Presbyterian Church.  Last night it was quite cold and today
    is unusually so.  The wind blew a great deal.  Several items of interest on the 
    “bulletin board” this evening.  Hood is fortifying Kennesaw Mountain in Sherman’s 
    rear.  Our forces occupy Marietta and have dashed in to Dalton.  Wheeler has 
    taken Rome, Georgia, with about 3,000 prisoners and Forrest has Rosecrans 
    cooped up in Nashville, Tennessee.
    Monday, Oct. 10, 1864
    The papers today merely confirm the rumors of yesterday.  If they are all 
    true, it is good enough for one day.  The court met as usual and tried one 
    case. Two other cases had been set for today but one prisoner was too 
    sick to attend and the other had broken jail.  Last night was very cold, 
    rendering Lt. Bouhac and his blankets a very acceptable addition to my 
    bed.  This morning there was a large frost—the first I have seen this fall.
    Tuesday, Oct. 11, 1864
    Last night was more pleasant.  There was a concert at the Virginia hospital.  
    It was given by some musicians in the army for the benefit of the Petersburg 
    refugees who have been driven from their homes by the shelling.  The 
    attendance was not so large as the former one.  This has been a more 
    pleasant day.  The court tried three cases today.  The news in the papers is 
    Wednesday, Oct. 12, 1864
    A new order convened our court by order of General R.E. Lee was received 
    this morning.  Col. B. Hall, Jr., of the 59th Alabama Regiment who was 
    detailed several days ago, to relieve Major N. Stallworth of the 23rd Alabama 
    Battalion, and who has been sick—appeared today.  No news of any 
    Tuesday, Oct. 13, 1864
    The court met as usual today all present by Col. Hall.  Tried one case. 
    No news of any consequence today.
    Friday, Oct. 14, 1864
    The court met as usual and tried three cases.  All members of the court 
    were present except Col. B. Hall, Jr.  The news from Richmond is good.   
    The enemy made heavy assaults on our lines but were repulsed.
    Saturday, Oct. 15, 1864
    The court met as usual, all members present.  Tried one case.  Last night 
    Mr. Ortho Lyerly of Rowan arrived bringing a lot of boxes for my company.  
    Among them is one for me from my good Aunt Ruth and mother which is 
    very acceptable.
    Sunday, October 16, 1864
    Lts. Krider and Lindsey having gone to the rear for the purpose of attending 
    Divine Services, we went this morning to the 2nd Presbyterian Church on 
    Washington Street.  Mr. Pugh, chaplain of the 41st Virginia Regiment, 
    (so I was told) preached a very excellent sermon.  In the evening, I attended 
    Grace Episcopal Church on High Street and heard a most excellent sermon 
    from the rector Rev. Churchill J. Gibson.
    Monday, Oct. 17, 1864
    The court met as usual all members present but Captain Ferguson of the 
    18th S.C.  We tried two cases and these kept us late.  A victory by our 
    forces in Virginia is reported.  It is said we drove the Yankee General 
    Crook from Fisher’s Mill through Strasburg and beyond Cedar Creek.
    Tuesday, Oct. 18, 1864
    Nothing of very great interest took place today.  The papers contain no 
    items of interest.  The court met, tried three cases and adjourned.
    Wednesday, Oct. 19, 1864
    The news from Georgia today is good, if true.  Hood, it seems, has 
    completely cut Sherman’s communications by destroying the railroad 
    from Resaca to near Tunnel Hill.  How does Hood subsist his army?  
    He must be in a country bare of supplies.  The court met at the proper 
    hour, all members being present.  Tried two cases and adjourned.
    Thursday, Oct. 20, 1864
    Nothing unusual today—the court met—all but Col. Hall present—tried 
    two cases and adjourned.  After adjournment I went to the trenches and 
    staying a short while.  Mr. Nicholson and I attended prayer meeting in the 
    Washington Street Methodist Church this evening.  Heavy cannon fire this 
    evening towards the north.
    Friday, Oct. 21, 1864
    The cases brought before the court this morning were not ready for trial.  
    They were, consequently, postponed.  The court adjourned and I visited 
    the city library.  At 4:00 I attended service at Gibson’s (Grace) Church on 
    High Street.  John A. Hill of my company was painfully wounded in the leg 
    by a piece of shell as he was coming out of the trenches.
    Saturday, Oct. 22, 1864
    The court met as usual and all members were present.  A case of coffee 
    stealing was up today.  Lt. Col. Troy, 66th Alabama, being the counsel for 
    the accused.  The case was a long one and the court sat hearing testimony 
    and the argument of the counsel for the defense until 4:00.  We then 
    adjourned before making a decision.  The news from the valley is bad.  
    Early attacked and whipped the enemy but was turned upon and badly 
    beaten in turn.  He captured a good number of cannon but lost them again 
    and a good many men.  The day has been cold and windy.
    The Landmark, Aug. 18, 1924
    Sunday, Oct. 23, 1864
    Lts. Krider, Roulhac and Lindsay of our regiment came out this morning to 
    attend church.  In the morning we all went to Washington Street (2nd) 
    Presbyterian Church and heard Rev. Dr. John Miller, its pastor.  He has 
    been absent the three or four past Sundays.  In the evening, Lt. Krider, 
    Lindsay and I went again to hear Dr. Miller.  Lt. Roulhac went to Grace 
    (Episcopal) Church.
    Monday, Oct. 24, 1864
    The court met and after some delay—caused by some member being late 
    in arriving—proceeded to business.  Brig. General Henry A. Wise, former 
    governor of Virginia, was a witness before the court today.  He wore a blue 
    broadcloth dress coat with the badge of his office on the collar—a checked 
    pair of summer pants—a pair of high shoes—and a black felt hat.  He wore 
    his hair long and it is quite grey—and his chin whiskers.  He looks as if full 
    sixty years of age but, very animated and entertaining in his conversation.  
    He has been quite a prominent man in his time and in the old Union was 
    frequently mentioned in connection with the presidency.  The court sat until 
    2:00 and adjourned.  The news today is unimportant.
    Tuesday, Oct. 25, 1864
    The court met and transacted its business and adjourned by 1:30.  No 
    additional news of consequence today.
    Wednesday, Oct. 26, 1864
    The court met as usual all members present but Col. Hall.  The cases that 
    were ordered for trial today, for one reason or another, were all postponed. 
     In the evening I attended services at Mr. Gibson’s (Grace Episcopal) Church.  
    The news today is unimportant.
    Thursday, Oct. 27, 1864
    The court met, all present except Col. Hall and Capt. Bristow.  We tried two 
    cases and adjourned.  About 10:00 heavy artillery fire commenced and 
    continued at intervals all day.  This evening musketry fire was distinctly 
    heard.  At this hour (9:30 pm), the most intelligible reports that I can get is:  
    that early this morning the enemy attacked and drove our cavalry and struck 
    the Dinwiddie Plank Road at Burgess’ Mills, seven miles from Petersburg.  
    General Deering dismounted his brigade of cavalry and endeavored to drive 
    back the enemy but could not.  Late this evening, several brigades of our 
    infantry attacked the enemy, and, from the fact that the firing receded, it is 
    thought, drove them.  It has been reported all day that General Deering was 
    killed.  It is also reported that the enemy cavalry was at Dinwiddie Court 
    House this morning.  There is also a rumor that the Southside Railroad has 
    been cut.  Rumors abound, facts scarce.
    Friday, Oct. 28, 1864
    Last night about 11:00 a tremendous cannonade took place along the lines 
    southeast of the city.  Today I learn that it was caused by a very bold and
     temporarily successful attack on Wise’s and Wallace’s lines, capturing a 
    good many.  Wise’s men were driven out of the front line of the main works, 
    abandoning two pieces of cannon on the Baxter Road salient to the enemy.  
    In this affair Lt. Cols. Peyton Wise and Randolph Harrison were captured and 
    also Capt. Ryland, acting adjutant general.  Our men soon rallied and drove 
    the enemy out of our works, retaking our line and artillery. In Wallace’s front 
    only a temporary lodgment was made by the enemy in the picket trenches 
    of the Holcombe Legion.  They were soon driven out of this with great slaughter.  
    Nothing more definite from the right today.  Over 200 prisoners were brought 
    in this morning and a rumor prevailed that the enemy had been driven from the 
    position they gained yesterday.  A battle was also fought on the north side of 
    the James in which we were reported to have been successful.  Owing to the 
    disturbance last night witnesses could not be procured so our court did no 
    business today.
    Saturday, Oct. 29, 1864
    The court met as usual all present but Col. Hall.  We tried three cases today 
    and adjourned until Monday.
    Sunday, Oct. 30, 1864
    Last night Lt. Col. James Davis of the 49th Regiment slept with Lt. Powers 
    and I.  This morning Lt. Krider of my company and I went to Dr. Miller’s 
    (Washington Street) Church and heard Rev. Thomas Pryor.  He is the father 
    of Hon. & Brigadier General Roger A. Pryor.  In the evening I went to Mr. 
    Gibson’s (Grace St) Church.
    Monday, Oct. 31, 1864
    The court met at 9:00 am, all present.  Tried two cases and adjourned.   
    The papers today still dwell on the actions of Thursday.  It seems that the 
    enemy was baffled at all points.  General Deering was not killed or even 
    wounded.  This seems to have been an effort by the enemy to lap our lines 
    both on the right and on the left at the same time.  The have been—if the 
    papers are truthful—and General Lee’s reports sustains them—completely 
    fooled.  They did not gain a foothold on our left and they have been driven from 
    their advantage of our right.  Mr. Nicholson and I went to prayer meeting at 
    the Washington Street Presbyterian Church.
    The Landmark, August 21, 1924
    Tuesday, Nov. 1, 1864
    The court met at the appointed hour, all members present.  We disposed of 
    two cases and adjourned at 1:30.
    Wednesday, Nov. 2, 1864
    The court met and transacted business as usual.  It commenced sleeting 
    and raining about 11:00 this morning and continued all day.  It is quite cold
    also.  The inclemency of the weather prevented services at Grace Church 
    and prayer meeting at the 2nd Presbyterian Church.
    Thursday, Nov. 3, 1864
    This has been a cold, cloudy, dark, rainy and disagreeable day.  The court 
    met as usual, all present except Col. Hall of the 59th Alabama.  At noon we 
    Friday, Nov. 4, 1864
    The court met as usual and tried two cases.  We adjourned at 2:00.  The day 
    has been cold and windy by about 9:00 this morning cleared off.
    Saturday, Nov. 5, 1864
    The court met as usual Col. Hall still absent.  We tried one case and adjourned.  
    The day has been windy and quite cold.
    Sunday, Nov. 6, 1864
    Last night Sgt. Monroe Burger of my company, who has been home on a sick
     furlough, returned.  Today I attended services both in the morning and in the 
    evening at Dr. Miller’s (Presbyterian) Church.  Last night a part of our division 
    took a portion of the enemy picket line.
    Monday, Nov. 7, 1864
    This has been a rainy day but the temperature has not been very cold.  The 
    court met as usual and everyone but Col. Hall was present.  We tried two 
    cases and adjourned.
    Tuesday, Nov. 8, 1864
    This has been a cloudy and warm day but no rain has fallen.  The court met 
    all but Col. Hall present.  This is the day of the great presidential election in 
    the U.S.  Today decides the fate of Lincoln and McClellan.  The Richmond 
    papers today contain President Davis’ message to Congress.
    Wednesday, Nov. 9, 1864
    Though threatening rain this morning, it rained but little.  About 10:00 this 
    morning, the clouds scattered and we had a warm, dry day. The court met 
    as usual ALL present.  We tried two cases.
    Thursday, Nov. 10, 1864
    The court met as usual, all present.  We tried one case and adjourned.  
    The other cases set for today could not be tried because of the absence 
    of witnesses.  The day has been remarkably warm for the season.  Thomas 
    M. Cook of my company was wounded last night by a shell and died this 
    morning.  Poor fellow!
    Friday, Nov. 11, 1864
    Nothing unusual today.  The court met all but Col. Hall present.  We 
    adjourned about noon.  The day has been clear and somewhat cooler than 
    for several days past.  Corp. E.C. Lentz of my company started home this
    morning on a 30 day furlough.
    The Landmark, Aug. 25, 1924
    Saturday, Nov. 12, 1864
    The court met as usual, all but Col. Hall present.  Owing to the absence of 
    witnesses, we tried no cases today.  About 9:00 today, a pretty brisk artillery 
    fire took place south of the “Crater” (formed by Grant’s men) but it soon died 
    down.  Good news from Forrest.  He has been whipping the enemy at 
    Johnsonville on the Tennessee River.
    Sunday, Nov. 13, 1864
    Attended services at the Washington St. Presbyterian Church both in the 
    morning and evening.  Dr. Miller delivered two excellent discourses.
    Monday, Nov. 14, 1864
    The court met—only five members present.  Lt. Cornwell of the 17th S.C. 
    was tried, Lt. Col. Hudson of the 26th S.C. defending him.  The day has 
    been cold and I have been very unwell.
    Tuesday, Nov. 15, 1864
    The court met as usual, only five members present.  We adjourned about 
    noon to meet Thursday morning.  In view of the presidential proclamation 
    the public worship on tomorrow, we will not meet that day.  I am still quite 
    Wednesday, Nov. 16, 1864
    Today, in accordance with the proclamation of the president, we observed 
    a day of public worship.  I attended services in the morning at Dr. Miller’s 
    Presbyterian Church.  In the morning nearly all the congregations in the 
    city met together in the Washington Street Baptist Church. The elder (of 
    the Presbyterian Church) delivered a lecture and a contribution was taken 
    up for the poor of the city.  Prayers were offered up by several ministers 
    present.  Rev. John L. Girardeau, chaplain of the 23rd S.C. also submitted 
    a few remarks.
    Thursday, Nov. 17, 1864
    The court met, five members present.  Tried two cases and adjourned.  No
    papers today.
    Friday, Nov. 18, 1864
    Mr. W.H. Neave, the accomplished teacher of our regimental band, arrived
    last night.  The court met as usual, five members present.  Lt. Cols. J.J. 
    Jolly and D.S. Troy of Gracie’s Brigade were before us today—the former as a 
    witness and the latter as counsel.  The day has been very warm for the 
    season.  No authentic news of consequence today.  It is reported that Sheridan 
    has reinforced Grant and that Early is making the proper move to counteract this.  
    Also that Sherman has cut loose from his Chattanooga communications and is
    on a grand march southwest from Atlanta.
    Saturday, Nov. 19, 1864
    The court met and proceeded with the unfinished business of yesterday.  
    Brigadier General Archibald Gracie was before us as a witness this 
    morning.  This has been a cloudy day—slight showers of rain occasionally 
    Sunday, Nov. 20, 1864
    A rainy day.  Did not go to church but remained in the chaplain’s tent all 
    day reading.  T.L. Thompson of my company left this morning on an 18 day 
    furlough.  Sgt. J.T. Ray also left on a five day furlough to visit his sick wife 
    at Danville, Va.  No news today.
    Monday, Nov. 21, 1864
    Rain! Rain! Rain!  It fell all last night and all day today.  Our court met but 
    owing to the absence of witnesses could do nothing.  I visited the Petersburg 
    library and took out the first volume of Allison’s (?) Europe.
    Tuesday, Nov. 22, 1864
    The court met today and tried one case and adjourned.  The day has been 
    cold—no news of any consequence.
    Wednesday, Nov. 23, 1864
    The court met, tired one case and adjourned.  Last night was a very cold 
    night.  Lt. Lindsay and I slept together in the colonel’s tent.  It has been 
    very cold all day.  A considerable conflagration took place in the city last 
    night.  The residence home and adjoining outbuildings and a large tobacco 
    factory with a considerable quantity of tobacco all belonging to a Mr. Williams 
    was destroyed.
    Thursday, Nov. 24, 1864
    The court met as usual and tried one case.  We then adjourned to meet 
    no more unless called together by the president of the court.  We expect
    to be dissolved by an order from the department headquarters as soon as 
    the judge advocate finishes his records.  We have been on this court a little 
    over three months. The day has been beautiful but rather cold.  Nothing 
    much of importance today.
    Friday, Nov. 25, 1864
    I have been busy preparing to go to the trenches.  A pleasant day.
    Saturday, Nov. 26, 1864
    Went to the trenches yesterday evening.  Lt. Bowers got a furlough 
    yesterday evening for 18 days.  I have spent the day trying to master 
    the minutiae of my duties.
    Sunday, Nov. 27, 1864
    Lt. Krider went to church today in Petersburg.  Nothing else of 
    consequence today.
    Monday, Nov. 28, 1864
    Was detailed as brigade officer of the day.  Relieved Cap. Hoey of the 
    (illegible) regiment.  Major Coal of the 60th (?) Alabama Regiment of 
    Gracie’s Brigade was division officer of the day for our left wing.  The 
    brigade was inspected today by Capt. Whitner of Major General Johnson’s 
    and Capt. S.H. Gee of Brigadier General Ransom’s staff.
    Tuesday, Nov. 29, 1864
    An attack on our line was apprehended last night or rather early this 
    morning.  Consequently, I was kept busy going along our lines putting 
    everything in readiness. Capt. Fenns(?) of the 24th; Capt. Harrell of the 
    56th; Capt. Freeman, of the 25th; Lt. Humphreys, of the 35th; and Capt. 
    Crawford of the 49th were the several regimental officers of the day.  I was 
    relieved by Capt. R.D. Graham of the 56th Regiment.  Had regiment 
    inspection at 3:00 by Lt. Col. Davis.
    Wednesday, Nov. 30, 1864
    We were roused at 4:00 am looking for an attack.  Major Stallworth of the 
    23rd Alabama (balance of entry is illegible).
    The Landmark, Aug. 28, 1924
    Thursday, Dec. 1, 1864
    We were again roused at 4:00 am in anticipation of an attack.  There was 
    a good deal of mortar firing today.  General R.E. Lee, accompanied by our 
    brigade, inspected the trenches today.  While on inspection in the trenches 
    this evening, Miles Harkey of my company was shot in the mouth by a 
    Yankee sharp shooter.  The wound is a very painful one and from it situation 
    likely to be quite troublesome.
    Friday, Dec. 2, 1864
    General Arch. Gracie of Alabama was killed by a shell or piece of shell 
    today while inspecting the lines of his brigade.  He is a great loss to the 
    country and in particular our division.
    Saturday, Dec. 3, 1864
    Was brigade officer of the day today.  Had a quiet tome.  I have been a 
    captain two years today.  My commission dated Dec. 3, 1862.
    Sunday, Dec. 4, 1864
    After being relieved this morning by Capt. L. Harrill of the 56th, I went to 
    church in the city.  I heard Rev. John L. Girardeau at the Washington 
    Street Presbyterian Church both morning and evening.  At night I went to 
    St. Paul’s Episcopal Church and heard a native Greek whose Anglican 
    name is Patterson.
    Monday, Dec. 5, 1864
    All quiet today.
    Tuesday, Dec. 6, 1864
    Nothing new on the lines today.  Lt. Col. Davis had his fine horse stolen a 
    few nights ago.  Today he recovered it.
    Wednesday, Dec. 7, 1864
    The Richmond papers report that Grant is being reinforced by Sheridan.  
    This has been a cloudy and rainy day.
    Thursday, Dec. 8, 1864
    Was regimental officer of the day.  A heavy column of infantry and artillery 
    has been sent by the enemy southward along the lines of the Weldon 
    Railroad.  This evening, our brigade was stretched out so that our regiment 
    was thrown entirely across the south side of the Norfolk Railroad.  My 
    quarters are old brigade headquarters during last summer.
    Friday, Dec. 9, 1864
    Last night it turned extremely cold.  I had a rather disagreeable time in visiting 
    the pickets and main lines.  I was relieved this morning by Capt. D.S. Barrett 
    of Company D.  It snowed this evening and after dark.
    Saturday, Dec. 10, 1864
    Company commanders had a meeting this morning to take into consideration 
    the subject of bread rations for the men and supplies of stationery, etc.  After
     this meeting, officers were requested to meet at regimental headquarters to 
    take into consideration the management of the band and pay the balance of 
    the salary of the leader, Prof. W.H. Neave.  After this, I went to the city.  Had 
    a rather muddy and disagreeable time.  Favorable rumors concerning the 
    operations on the Weldon Railroad are plentiful this evening. Whether or not 
    they are true is doubtful.
    The Landmark, September 1, 1924
    Monday, Dec. 12, 1864
    Still very cold.  Read Miss Braddon’s new novel “John Marchmont’s Legacy”.
    Tuesday, Dec. 13, 1864
    Was regimental officer of the day.  This evening we returned—much to our 
    chagrin—to our old position north of the Norfolk Railroad.
    Wednesday, Dec. 14, 1864
    Was relieved by Capt. Dixon of Company G.  In the evening, we were subject 
    to a very severe shelling.  Capt. Dixon and Ransom Sides of my company 
    were killed.  Major Petty and eight men of the regiment were also wounded.
    Thursday, Dec. 15, 1864
    Lt. Col. Davis was division officer of the day, which threw me in command 
    of the regiment today.  I am now, since Capt. Dixon’s death—the senior 
    captain of the regiment.  Indeed, I may be the senior captain now belonging 
    to the division(?)/  Captain Corbett, who claimed to outrank both Capt. Dixon 
    and I, but about whose rank there is some doubt, has been trying to be retired.  
    Grist, of Company A, was killed today by a Minnie ball.  Shuping of Company 
    E was wounded by a fragment of mortar shell and Waugh of my company with 
    a Minnie ball while on the picket line.
    Friday, Dec. 16, 1864
    Still in command of the regiment—after being relieved as officer of the day, 
    Lt. Col. Davis went to the rear.  Lenhart of Company H was wounded by a 
    Minnie ball today—would is supposed to be mortal.  Ortho Lyerly arrived 
    today with boxes.
    Sunday, Dec. 17, 1864
    Lt. Bowers of my company who has been home on furlough returned today.  
    Nothing else of particular interest except that we are having a good time 
    enjoying the contents of our boxes.
    Sunday, Dec. 18, 1864
    Lt. Col. Davis went to the rear today to see a friend and left me in command 
    of the regiment.
    Sunday, Dec. 19, 1864
    Went to the city on a permit today.  Drew pay, attended to some other
    business and returned to the trenches to get dinner.  While there, the enemy 
    treated us to another heavy mortar shell.  Three men in Company F were 
    wounded—Capt. D.S. Barrett and I then went back to attend a concert given 
    at Mechanic’s hall in which the band of our regiment was to participate.
    Tuesday, Dec. 20, 1864
    The entertainment last night was very good.  The performance did not end 
    until about 11:00.
    Wednesday, Dec. 21, 1864
    Nothing unusual today.  Was busy writing letters.  Was regimental officer of 
    the day.
    Thursday, Dec. 22, 1864
    Had a hard time last night superintending work parties on the main and picket 
    Friday, Dec. 23, 1864
    Working on muster rolls today.  Was busy all day.
    Saturday, Dec. 24, 1864
    Was again regimental officer of the day, relieving Capt. J.T. Crawford.  Was 
    busy writing all day.  Finished the muster roll.
    Sunday, Dec. 25, 1864
    This morning my mess—thanks to supplies from home—had eggnog followed 
    by an excellent breakfast, after that Lt. Krider and I went to church in the city.  
    At 11:00 we went to St. Paul’s Episcopal Church and heard a most excellent 
    discourse from its rector Dr. Platt.  The church which is Gothic in architecture 
    was beautifully decorated with evergreens.  Five festoons of cedar hung from 
    the five ornaments in the center of the church, to the banisters of the gallery 
    on each side.  A great wreath was fastened around the walls of the church 
    below and another around the banister of the gallery above.  The pulpit was 
    wreathed with evergreens and a cross wreathed with them stood behind the 
    pulpit.  On this cross was another and smaller cross of gilt and on the 
    banisters in front of the choir was the word “Emmanuel” in large gilt letters.  
    The church was crowded and many outside could not get in at all.  At 3:30 
    we went to hear my favorite, Rev. John Miller of the Washington St. 
    Presbyterian Church.  His discourse was, as his discourses always are, 
    excellent.  It displayed much closeness and depth of research.  After 
    service at this church, Lt. Krider returned to the trenches but I, having gotten 
    permission for the purpose, stayed for the service at St. Paul’s.  The church 
    presented a magnificent spectacle.  The gorgeous evergreen decorations—
    the Gothic arch—the brilliant gas lights—the large assembly of finely dressed 
    ladies and officers—the splendid robes of the officiating clergymen—the 
    exquisite singing and chanting of the choir—the solemn tones of the minister 
    and equally solemn responses of the congregation—the deep, stirring peals 
    of the large organ all combined to make one of the most impressive scenes I 
    ever witnessed.  After the sermon was over I returned to the trenches.  And 
    thus I spent Christmas—the fourth since I have been in the war.  I spent it as 
    I never spent it before, attending divine services in the city.  I had fondly hoped 
    to spend this day in my beloved home—but have been disappointed.  I could 
    but feel the hope that, before another Christmas comes, I and all the soldiers 
    would be at our homes—our country free from the hated foe—our independence 
    secured and our Confederacy on the high road to prosperity.
    Monday, Dec. 26, 1864
    Was busy writing all day on muster rolls, etc.
    Tuesday, Dec. 27, 1864
    Lt. Col. Davis being detailed as division officer of the day, I was thrown in 
    command of the regiment—Capt. D.S. Barrett of Company D gave a dinner 
    to which I, among others, was invited—Lt. Col Davis, Lt. T.R. Roulhac, Lt. 
    Alex Barrett and I composed the dinner party.  Some others had been invited 
    but could not come.  It was a splendid dinner for the time—just such a one 
    as a soldier could appreciate—sausages, cabbage and bacon, butter sweet 
    potatoes, pickles, biscuits, warm rolls and coffee—real coffee with sugar 
    and cream—and last and best of all a large turkey—composed the dinner. 
    It would have been tempting in peace time.
    Wednesday, Dec. 28, 1864
    Was in command of the regiment until Col. Davis was relieved and by this 
    circumstance managed to escape being on duty as regimental officer of 
    the day.
    Thursday, Dec. 29, 1864
    Was regimental officer of the day.  Was busy working on my muster rolls.
    Friday, Dec. 30, 1864
    Had a muddy time last night in making my rounds.  Busy writing today.
    Saturday, Dec. 31, 1864
    Finished my muster rolls—the last day of the month—the last day of the 
    year.  This day is the last in an eventful year in American history.  It is the 
    last page of an interesting book—to be followed by another and another 
    and God only knows how many others of a similar character.  It is the 
    closing of a scene in a bloody drama; to be followed as it has been 
    preceded by other scenes of a sanguinary cast.  To our country, this 
    year has been eventful—to our brigade—to our regiment—to my company—
    to myself indeed it has been a period of stirring and thrilling scenes and a 
    time ever to be hallowed by melancholy and proud and grateful memories.  
    Oh God!  How thankful to Thee are those of us who survive for Thy many 
    wonderful and special Providence.
    The Landmark, Sept. 8, 1924
    Sunday, Jan. 1, 1865
    Was regimental officer of the day.  Did not get to church in Petersburg as
    I desired.  My New Year’s Day was rather tame.  No good dinner, no 
    eggnog.  Nothing unusual.
    Monday, Jan. 2, 1865
    Last night was extremely cold.  Was relieved this morning by Capt. J.T. 
    Crawford of Company E.  Was today placed on an examining board for 
    the purpose of examining all candidates for promotion in the brigade.  
    Major R.E. Petty of the 35th N.C.R. and Lt. S.R. Horton of the 56th are the 
    other members of the board.  Met at 2:00 pm and examined Sgt. Hawkins 
    of the 25th Regiment, Company C, a candidate for 2nd lieutenant.
    Tuesday, Jan. 3, 1865
    Major Petty’s mare was killed last night at the brigade wagon yard and he 
    went to the rear to investigate the matter.  Consequently, the board did not
     meet at 10:00 as intended.  J.H. Raymer (Nat) and John Y. Barber of the 
    band of my old regiment—4th N.C.—visited us today.  Nat was one of my 
    mess mates at the beginning of the war and I was delighted to see him.  
    The board met at 2:00 pm and examined J.S. Weaver of Co. G 49th 
    Regiment, a candidate for captain of his company.  He was not considered 
    Wednesday, Jan. 4, 1865
    The board met at 10:00 am and examined 2nd Lt. Benjamin F. Dixon of 
    Company G of the 49th N.C.R. and found him competent to be captain of 
    that company.  He will, consequently, be promoted over Lt. Weaver.
    Thursday, Jan, 5, 1865
    The board met at 10:00 am and examined Lt. Royston of the 35th, a 
    candidate to be first lieutenant.  He was found incompetent.
    Friday, Jan. 6, 1865
    Was regimental officer of the day. The escarpment(?) on the south side of 
    Gracie’s Dam was discovered to be out of order about 10:00 tonight.  The 
    water began to escape on each side of the “trunk” and seriously threaten the 
    main wall of the dam.  Owing, however, to a tree being between the vent and
     the main breast of the dam, no very serious damage was done.
    Saturday, Jan. 7, 1865
    Nothing of consequence took place today.
    Sunday, Jan. 8, 1865
    Last night was terribly cold—so was today.  Lt. Krider and I went to church 
    in the city.  In the morning at 11:00 we went to the Washington Street 
    Presbyterian Church and heard its talented pastor Rev. John Miller.  It was 
    the day of communion and the sermon was of an appropriate character—able, 
    learned, beautiful in its structure and practical in its bearings.  At 3:30 we went 
    to Grace Church on High Street and heard one of the rectors Rev. C.J. Gibson—
    his plain, earnest and deeply pious discourse.  I had gotten a permit of such 
    length that I could stay for night services at St. Paul’s but having become 
    hungry and the evening was so cold, that I concluded to return to the trenches.
    Monday, Jan. 9, 1865
    Was busy all day.  Lts. Bowers and Krider went to the city to attend a 
    meeting of the Masonic Lodge this evening.
    Tuesday, Jan. 10, 1865
    Was brigade officer of the day.  Reported at headquarters at 9:00 and 
    elieved Capt. Henley of the 35th Regiment.  One of the heaviest rains—
    indeed THE heaviest we have had in this city fell last night and today.  
    The “dam” was broken worse than ever—bomb proofs revetments and 
    traverses had fallen down and the trenches fallen in in some places to the 
    depth of two feet with  mud and water.  One man in Company E of the 56th 
    and one in Company K of the 24th Regiment fell into the bomb proofs.
    Wednesday, Jan. 11, 1865
    Had an extremely disagreeable tramp through the mud in making my 
    “rounds” this morning before day.  Got into mud over the top of Lt. Lindsay’s 
    boots—which I had borrowed—and began to feel I was “swamped”.  Was 
    relieved by Capt. W.G. Graves of the 56th Regiment.  Was left in command 
    of the regiment.  Lt. Col. Davis was field officer of the day for the left wing—
    Gracie’s and Ransom’s brigades—of the division.
    Thursday, Jan. 12, 1865
    Remained in command of the regiment until noon when Col. Davis was 
    relieved.  Col. McAfee who has been absent sick returned today.  I sent 
    up an application for a leave of absence today.
    Friday, Jan. 13, 1865
    Was busy writing all day.
    Saturday, Jan. 14, 1865
    Was regimental officer of the day for the left wing of the division today—Lt. 
    Col. Davis was sick.  I was thus again thrown in command of the regiment.
    Sunday, Jan. 15, 1865
    Col. McAfee went to the rear after being relieved.  Lt. Col. Davis is still sick. 
    Much to my vexation I was thus left in command of the regiment.  I had 
    wanted to visit the city and hear Rev. Dr. R.L. Dabney, one of the finest 
    and ablest divines of the South who preaches today in the Tabb Street 
    Presbyterian Church.
    Monday, Jan. 16, 1865
    Was regimental officer of the day.  Had a great deal of work to do on the lines.
    Tuesday, Jan. 17, 1865
    We heard today the unwelcome news of the fall of Ft. Fisher below Wilmington, 
    N.C.  John Terrell of my company got a furlough today for 18 days.
    Wed., Jan. 18, 1865
    W.G. Rice of my company got an 18 day furlough.  Last night Col. McAfee 
    and Lt. Col. Davis’ horses were stolen.  The colonel went to the rear to take 
    some measures to retrieve them.
    Thursday, Jan. 19, 1865
    Nothing unusual today.
    Friday, Jan. 20, 1865
    My leave of absence returned today asking for further information concerning 
    the number of leaves granted to officers from our regiment.
    Saturday, Jan. 21, 1865
    Was put in command of the regiment and also was regimental officer of the 
    day.  Col. McAfee had gone to the rear yesterday and had been detained.  It 
    commenced snowing and raining early this morning.  Am busily engaged in 
    working on my new company books.
    The Landmark, September 11, 1924
    Sunday, Jan. 22, 1865
    Had an extraordinary bad night on duty.  Was relieved by Capt. Crawford.  
    Went to church in the city.  In the morning I heard Dr. Dabney at 1st or 
    Tabb Street Presbyterian Church and in the evening heard Dr. Miller at the 
    2nd or Washington St. Presbyterian Church.  Wm. O. Styers of my 
    company deserted to the enemy this morning.
    Monday, Jan. 23, 1865
    Was busy arranging my company books and clothing account of the men 
    and reading.
    Tuesday, Jan. 24, 1865
    Same as yesterday
    Wednesday, Jan. 25, 1865
    Same as yesterday
    Thursday, Jan. 26, 1865
    Was regimental officer of the day.  My application for leave returned 
    approved tonight.
    Friday, Jan. 27, 1865
    J.W. McDaniel of my company deserted to the enemy this morning.  
    Captain Crawford was to relieve me but, having, like myself, gotten a leave 
    of absence, Capt. Connor took his place.  Capt. Crawford and I went to 
    the city, drew our pay and made arrangements to leave for home.
    Saturday, Jan. 28, 1865
    At 1:00 this morning we started.  It was bitter cold.  Having on yesterday 
    ascertained the fact that no train would go out on the South Side Railroad, 
    we went to Dunlop’s Station, two and a half miles from Petersburg, to take 
    the 6:00 train for Richmond.  We were disappointed on arriving to find that 
    the trains had been impressed last night to transport wood and that no train 
    would leave for Richmond until 1:00.  However, at 1:00 we did get off, landed 
    in Richmond and took up lodgings at the “N.C. Soldier’s Home”.
    Sunday, Jan. 29, 1865
    Had a considerable night’s rest and sleep.  Got up early in order to take 
    the 7:00 train for Danville, not a little to our annoyance that no one going 
    south of Danville would be permitted to go on that train.  At 11:00 we got 
    off but had not proceeded very far until our engine broke and delayed us for 
    several hours.
    Monday, Jan. 30, 1865
     Got to Danville last night about 1:00—to late for the Greensboro train.  
    Had a most disagreeable time of it. Sat up until daylight by a very poor fire.  
    This morning at 6:00 we got on a freight train for Greensboro.  We were 13 
    hours going the 48 miles. Got to Greensboro about 7:00 p.m.
    Tuesday, Jan. 31, 1865
    Capt. Holeman and McIver of the 24th Regiment and I sat up all night 
    waiting for the Raleigh bound train.  It should have been at Greensboro by 
    3:00 am.  We waited until 4:00 before we could get off to Raleigh.
    Wednesday, Feb. 1, 1865
    Got to Raleigh about 11:00 last night and took lodgings at Price’s Hotel 
    giving $10 for a bed for the remainder of the night.  Gave $10 for a poor 
    breakfast this morning and then went up town to transact my business.  
    I got through and went hastily to the depot to see—much to my vexation—
    the 1:00 train for Salisbury going off at full speed.  It could not be helped, 
    however, and I bore my vexation as best I could.  No train goes west now 
    until 1:00 in the morning.  Prevailed upon the hotel keeper to introduce Lt. 
    Thorn of the 54th N.C. Cavalry who was also waiting for the west bound 
    train to introduce us to two very lively young ladies who were playing and 
    singing in the parlor.  Had a nice time until supper.  Were rather vexed after 
    supper in finding the parlor full of young CITIZENS, acquaintances of the 
    young ladies.  Not caring very much to associate with able bodied young 
    men not in the army, we retired in good order without the loss of a man—
    or a heart.
    Thursday, Feb. 2, 1865
    Got off at 1:00 last night and reached Salisbury about 1:00 pm.  Took my
    lodgings at the Mansion House.  Met with several acquaintances among 
    whom were George Gibson, a Davidson College acquaintance who I had 
    not seen since the war began.  I remember very distinctly how I, a poor 
    freshman, was so badly teased by poor Pink Cowan, Ed Harris and this 
    same little George Gibson, which trio had just then attained the dignity 
    of sophomores.  Upon seeing Gibson, I could not but recall the sad fate 
    of my other two classmates.
    The Landmark, Sept. 15, 1924
    Friday, Feb. 3, 1865
    Reached home at last!!  Left Salisbury at 7:00 and got home about 10:00.  
    Met cousin Joe and Mary Chambers and Miss Erwin, Misses Adelaide and 
    Laura Avery there, also my dwarf uncle Curtis.
    Saturday, Feb. 4, 1865
    Spent the day at home.  Uncle Curtis went to the burial of Wm. Robinson’s 
    body at Bethesda Church.  Rev. G.S. Brackett, pastor of the Third Creek 
    Church brought his wife by this morning while on his way to the burial and 
    returned with Uncle Curtis this evening.  He seems to be a very quiet, 
    pleasant, affable man.
    Sunday, Feb. 5, 1865
    Went to Third Creek Church.  The ladies went in the carriage, Uncle Pinck 
    and I in the buggy and Lenoir on his pony.  Mr. Brackett preached quite a 
    pretty sermon so far as language is concerned.  As to the matter, I must 
    confess that my attention to other matters was too much to give an opinion.
    Monday, Feb. 6, 1865
    Intended to start early to see my mother.  Wished, however, to see what 
    success Jordan had met with in getting my coat and boots made.  
    Waited until 1:00 but Jordan did not come.  Went by grandfather’s and
    got dinner there and reached mother’s at dark and found everything in 
    readiness for a singing which was gotten up for the benefit of Isaac Jones, 
    my step-brother, who is at home on furlough but who starts to his command 
    in a day or two.  Soon the house was full of young women.  I counted 35.  
    There were three or four gentlemen.  The person who was expected to lead 
    the singing did not come.  The singing was a very near failure.  About 9:00 
    the meeting broke up and after a bustle and hurry after bonnets, shawls, 
    and hats, the company dispersed.
    Tuesday, Feb. 7, 1865
    Last night sleet and snow commenced falling and by this morning the
    ground was covered with several inches.  I spent the day indoors.  Isaac 
    was packing boxes, etc., to start to the army tomorrow.  The sleet and 
    snow continued falling all day.
    Wednesday, Feb. 8, 1865
    This morning Isaac put his baggage in a wagon, and, with my step-father, 
    elder sister, brother John and cousin Bettie Chambers, started for 
    Statesville where Isaac will take the train to the army.  I took leave of my 
    good mother and sisters and little brothers and accompanied Isaac and his 
    party to Perth Church.  I called to see my pretty cousin Mary Kimball and 
    cousin Annie Chambers and took dinner with them.  I called at grandfather’s 
    and got home about sundown.
    Thursday, Feb. 9, 1865
    Remained quietly at home all day.  “Otium cum dignitare”.   I am 
    meditating a raid in the direction of Statesville—cannot exactly get up a 
    good excuse.
    Friday, Feb. 10, 1865
    Would have gone to Statesville but the bad engine came up today so I 
    postponed my visit.  Mrs. Lou Wilson, Miss Irwin, her aunt, Miss Matilda 
    Irwin, her sister, cousin Mary Chambers, Misses Adelaide and Laura 
    Avery came down from cousin Joe’s.
    Saturday, Feb. 11, 1865
    Went to Statesville today.  Mrs. Wilson, Miss Irwin, her aunt and Miss 
    Irwin her sister also went up.  Got my coat from Mr. Leinster.  Did not 
    call on any ladies.  Could find no one who could go with me on that 
    business.  Returned at night on the train.  Got home at 10:00.
    Sunday, Feb. 12, 1865
    Rode up to grandfather’s about noon to spend the day.  Found it quite 
    cold riding.
    Monday, Feb. 13, 1865
    Went to Statesville this morning.   Had a cold ride. Called with L.A. Hall 
    on Miss M.E.S-----.  Made a short call on Miss T. S-----.  Regret 
    exceedingly that my furlough is so short.  I am now about prepared to 
    enjoy myself—have been very busy ever since I came home.  Came by 
    way of my grandfather’s on my way home and parted from them with 
    sorrow.  May my poor, feeble old grandfather live yet may days.  He has 
    seen his four score years and is not quite feeble.
    Tuesday, Feb. 14, 1865
    Remained quietly at home enjoying the comforts of home life.  I was also 
    making arrangements to return to the army.  It commenced snowing this 
    evening and bids fare to continue for some time.  The ground is already 
    frozen and will cause the snow to remain a long while unless there comes 
    a rain or the temperature gets a great deal warmer.  A Mr. Murkland—son 
    of Rev. Murkland, came this evening and will spend the night with us.
    Wednesday, Feb. 15, 1865
    Still busy making final preparations for return to the army.  Rode up to cousin 
    Joe’s and took dinner.  Mr. Murkland left pretty early this morning.  Came from 
    cousin Joe’s by way of his plantation and parted with my little Uncle Ebeneezer.  
    Got supper at home and took leave of dear cousin Justina, her sister Miss 
    Laura Avery—the little ones, Uncle Curtis and the servants.  Rode over to the 
    railroad in the buggy and sat with Mr. Waddell and family until the train arrived.
      Tuesday, Feb. 16, 1865
    Left Waddell’s turnout about 8:00.  Found Mr. Ortho Lyerly at Rowan’s Mills, 
    ready to visit my command with a load of boxes.  He got part of his boxes on 
    the train when the engineer, disobeying the conductor, started off.  We arrived 
    at Salisbury in time for me to take the train for Greensboro at which place we 
    arrived this morning at 3:00.  Found to my annoyance that there would be no 
    train for Danville until 5:00 that evening.  Had quite a dull day of it.  Got off 
    about 5:00 this evening for Danville.  Found cousin Lou Potts on the train going 
    to Petersburg to visit her husband.
    Friday, Feb. 17, 1865
    Made connections last night at Danville but were delayed by trains having run 
    off the track so that we did not reach Burkesville Junction in time to take the 
    train for Petersburg.  (illegible words) to Richmond and took lodgings at the 
    Saturday, Feb. 18, 1865
    Were roused early—paid $20 for lying in a bed!!!.  Came to the Petersburg 
    depot where the whole party—cousin Lou, Mrs. Baker, Capt. Harrison of 
    Raleigh and I—were put off the train because we had not gotten passports.  
    Entreaties were in vain, we could not go.  I have often been engaged in this 
    business and had to put parties off in a similar manner but now to be put off 
    myself—this touched my vanity—for I thought I understood the passport 
    system.  We had to wait for the next train which would start in two hours.  
    Meantime, I had a siege of it at the door of the passport office.  At 9:00 we 
    got off and got to Dunlop’s Station within three miles of Petersburg, which is 
    as near as trains run in daylight—about 11:00.  Got the ladies and our 
    baggage in an ambulance—took them to Mr. Morritt’s, where cousin Lou 
    had formerly boarded.  Put the company there, the ladies remaining.  Capt. 
    Harrison went on his way to his (47th N.C.) regiment and I to mine.  Got to 
    Petersburg and put my valise in an ambulance going towards our part of the line.  
    Got behind it.  Had failed to learn exactly where it would leave my valise or where 
    the ambulance belonged—had a real hunt for it.  About dark, I found it at the 
    station where Wise’s ambulances are nearest the  lines and though nearly 
    broken down went on my way to my regiment rejoicing.  Got in a little after dark 
    and found the regiment exactly where I left it.  Upon the whole I do not feel exactly 
    satisfied with my parole—did not have as fine a time as I had anticipated.  I ought, 
    however, to be thankful—I found my friends at home all in good health and got 
    pretty well supplied with clothes.
    The Landmark, Sept. 18, 1924
    Sunday, Feb. 19, 1865
     Being a day and a half over my time, I cannot, according to General Lee’s 
    orders, resume my duties until he has decided upon my reasons for delay.  
    I am, consequently, under arrest until my written excuse which I forwarded 
    this morning, is returned with General Lee’s orders thereon.  I have satisfied 
    myself I will be returned to duty.  If not I will have to undergo a trial before a 
    court martial.  I remained in my quarters all day.  
    Monday, Feb. 20, 1865
    Both Lts. Krider and Bowers went to the rear today.  I remained in my 
    quarters writing.  J.C. Steele, a member of the band of the 4th N.C.R., 
    N.C.S.T. and who was one of my mess mates when I was in that old 
    regiment, called to see me today and took dinner with us.  John Y. Barber 
    of the same band, also called to see me.  Their band and our band are to 
    give a joint concert in Petersburg tonight.  I am invited, but, being in limbo, 
    cannot go.
    Tuesday, Feb. 21, 1865
    Remained all day in my quarters writing.  Nothing of consequence 
    occurred in this vicinity today.
    Wednesday, Feb. 22, 1865
    Employed as yesterday—rumors of a move on hand.
    Thursday, Feb. 23, 1865
    Nothing of any consequence today further than an agitation of some rumors.
    Friday, Feb. 24, 1865
    My application for return to duty returned today.  My reasons for being over 
    time were satisfactory to General Lee and I am ordered to resume duties.
    Saturday, Feb. 25, 1865
    Last night about 10:00 we were all aroused and half the forces are to 
    remain awake and those who slept were to sleep in the trenches.  The 
    trenches were too muddy to sleep—so my company and I remained 
    awake all night.  The objective of this was to be ready for an anticipated 
    attack of the enemy.  About the same time this order was received, Col. 
    McAfee succeeded in arresting ten men of Company H who were starting 
    to desert home.  I had received some previous intimation and was on the 
    alert.  He placed them under a strong guard in the mine nearby.  I am 
    regimental officer of the day today, having relieved Capt. B.F. Dixon.
    Sunday, Feb. 26, 1865
    Rainy morning.  Having sent up a permit which came back this morning 
    approved, I concluded to go to church.  Heard Rev. Dr. Miller at the Second 
    Presbyterian Church both morning and evening.  They were, indeed, as his 
    sermons always are, splendid discourses.
    Monday, Feb. 27, 1865
    Was busy in my quarters reading and writing.
    Tuesday, Feb. 28, 1865
    Subscribed with Capt. Connor and Lt. Krider for the Richmond Examiner 
    for one month.  Was brigade officer of the day.
    Wednesday, March 1, 1865
    Got a permit and visited Petersburg.  Remained until after 12:00 when I 
    returned to the trenches.
    Thursday, March 2, 1865
    Was busy writing.
    Friday, March 3, 1865
    Same as yesterday.  Bad weather.
    Saturday, March 4, 1865
    Was regimental officer of the day.  Rainy weather.
    Sunday, March 5, 1865
    Lt. Krider and I went to church in the city.  Was disappointed in not 
    getting to hear Rev. Mr. Miller—another minister occupied his pulpit.  
    After the first sermon, Lt. Krider returned to the trenches..  In the evening, 
    Col. McAfee, Lt. Col. Davis, Capt. J.C. Grier, Sgts. Holland and Cameron 
    and I went to the Presbyterian Church on Washington Street and were 
    again disappointed not hearing Mr. Miller.  At night, Lt. Col. Davis, Capt. 
    Grier and I went to Tabb St. Presbyterian Church and heard a splendid 
    doctrinal sermon from Rev. R.L. Dabney.
    Monday, March 6, 1865
    Was quiet today.  Remained in my quarters.  Beautiful day.
    Tuesday, March 7, 1865
    Same as yesterday.  Weather delightful.
    Wednesday, March 8, 1865
    Am reading “Pickwick Clerk” for amusement.  Am highly delighted with it.  
    Commenced to rain.
    Thursday, March 9, 1865
    Was regimental officer of the day.  Relieved Capt. Grier.  Rained last night 
    and again today.
    The Landmark, Sept. 22, 1924
    Friday, March 10, 1865
    I was on duty last night and had quite a muddy time of it.  This morning the 
    indications were that we would have more rain during the day.  General Lee’s 
    order concerning the observance of this day was sent around this morning 
    accompanied by a glowing circular from General Ransom to be read before 
    each company.  Services which one third of the officers and men of the 
    brigade would be allowed to attend would be heard at the brigade wood yard. 
    Lt. Thomas R. Roulhac and I, having gotten permission to attend church in
    the city, went out.  Lt. Roulhac did not attend service in the morning and I, 
    finding that my favorite minister Rev. John Miller, was unwell, and that there 
    would be no services in his church, went with Capt. Torrence, Lt. Wilson of 
    Company H and Quartermaster Sgt. Holland to St. Paul’s Episcopal Church 
    and hear Rev. Mr. Platt.  Owing to the weather the congregation was small.  
    General Lee, Lt. General R.H. Anderson, Major General Johnson and Brig. 
    General Ransom were in attendance.  In the evening, Lt. Roulhac and I 
    attended a joint prayer meeting of the Washington St. Baptist Church.  
    Several fervent prayers were offered up and the assembly was addressed by 
    Rev. Dr. R.L. Dabney and Rev. Thomas Hume.  This evening we have the 
    welcome news of a victory over the enemy at Kinston in which the enemy 
    were driven off, 1,500 prisoners and three pieces of artillery taken.  General 
    Bragg, Maj. General D.H. Hill and Hoke commanded our side. We have 
    learned, however, they gave so little credit to General Bragg’s victories that 
    this news does not cheer us much.  We wait to hear it confirmed.
    Saturday, March 11, 1865
    This has been a beautiful day!!  It cleared off yesterday evening.
    Sunday, March 12, 1865
    Last night we had to move a little on the right to take up the space vacated by 
    the 25th N.C.R. leaving the line.  This regiment was ordered, it is said, to Ft. 
    Clifton on the north side of the Appomattox.  This was about 11:00.  Half of the 
    men were kept up all night and at 4:00 we were roused and kept under arms 
    until sunrise.  The report last night was that the enemy was advancing on 
    Richmond.  No permits were granted to go to the city.  Lt. Roulhac and I were 
    disappointed.  However, we did get permits to go to church tonight.  We heard 
    Dr. R.L. Dabney and also after him a part of Dr. Platt’s discourse.  After this 
    we returned to the trenches.  The night was beautiful—almost as bright as day 
    with the brilliant moonlight.  We heard today of a victory by Lt. General Wade 
    Hampton over the Yankee cavalry General Kirkpatrick in South Carolina.  
    Mosby and Rosser have been annoying the guard of the enemy who conduct 
    our prisoners who were captured at Waynesboro, to Winchester.
    Monday, March 13, 1865
    Busy preparing for inspection tomorrow.  Yesterday’s rumors as to Hampton’s 
    victory and Rosser’s operations are confirmed by today’s paper.  General Lee 
    reports that Hampton attacked the enemy at daylight on the 10th inst., 
    captured a good many, and releasing a good many who had been captured 
    by the enemy, taking many horses, several pieces of ammunition and many 
    wagons.  Owing, however, to the want of horses, the wagons and artillery 
    could not be brought off.  About 4:00 we got orders to be ready to march 
    and to send all surplus baggage to the rear.  After dark, a pretty heavy 
    musketry fire was heard, approximately on the right of our division.  This 
    was accompanied by great cheering.  This caused us all to repair, armed and 
    equipped to the front line, and there await for some time the anticipated attack.  
    The excitement, however, soon subsided.  Half the men, however, were kept 
    under arms during the night.
    Tuesday, March 14, 1865
    All were aroused this morning to remain under arms until daylight.  Still 
    under marching orders.  I was regimental officer of the day.  Got Capt. Grier 
    to take my place while I went to the wagon yard to arrange my baggage.  
    Through Sgt. Ray’s influence, I deposited my nice uniform suit and some 
    bedding with Rev. C.J. Gibson, the worthy and estimable rector of Grace 
    Presbyterian Church.
    Wednesday, March 15, 1865
    In the firing and cheering the night before last, we learned it was caused by 
    Wallace’s (S.C.) brigade of our division being relieved.  The South Carolinians 
    could not leave a position they had held so long without a little fun.  Last night 
    Gracie’s and Wise’s brigade of our division were relieved.  We expect to follow 
    suit tonight.  It is Gordon’s troops of the 2nd Army Corps that is relieving our 
    The Landmark, Sept. 29, 1924
    Tuesday, March 16, 1865
    At 8:00 last night we were relieved and took our line of march towards the 
    right.  We marched to Mishone’s old winter quarters three miles from 
    Petersburg where, about midnight, we stopped and waited until this morning 
    about 9:00 when we came on to our present place where we are now luxuriating 
    in the excellent winter quarters recently occupied by some Virginia troops.  
    Both last night and tonight have been varied by some occasional showers of 
    rain.  The wind is blowing quite freely this evening.
    Friday, March 17, 1865
    Beautiful weather.  We enjoyed our shanties remarkably.  At 3:00 we had 
    battalion drill.  The companies took their position in line according to the 
    rank of the captains.  This throws me on the extreme right of the regiment.  
    After drilling some time in battalion, the colonel ordered the company 
    commanders to drill in company drill for half an hour.  In the evening, we had 
    dress parade.
    Saturday, March 18, 1865
    Had regiment inspection by Lt. Col. Davis at 9:00 am after which there 
    was no other duty exacted.  
    Sunday, March 19, 1865
    It was a beautiful day and I wished so much that I could have attended 
    church in Petersburg today as has been my custom.  This pleasure will 
    now doubtless have to be given up.  About dark, orders were received to 
    hold ourselves in readiness to move at a moment’s notice.
    Monday, March 20, 1865
    Was brigade officer of the day.  We had, as ever since arriving here, a 
    regular guard mounting.  The band of our regiment was in attendance, 
    and I relieved Capt. P.J. Johnson of the 35th Regiment.  There were two 
    dress parades today—one at 8:30 am and one at 6:00 pm, two drills—
    company and squad from 9:00 to 11:00 am—battalion drill from 3:00 to 
    5:00.  This, by the orders of Major General B.R. Johnson is to be the daily 
    routine until further orders.
    Tuesday, March 21, 1865
    Was relieved by Capt. Grigg of the 56th N.C.R., at guard mounting this 
    morning.  The usual dress and morning drill but not this evening in 
    consequence of rain.  The papers today bring the official account of the 
    late battle near Bentonville in Johnston Co., N.C.  He drove the enemy, 
    killing many and losing a few.  But little artillery was used on our side—
    we captured three pieces.
    Wednesday, March 22, 1865
    Although we had a pretty heavy rain last night the morning opened in bright 
    and clear.  Instead of a morning drill, we had inspection by the brigade 
    inspector Lt. S.R. Holton.  In the evening we had battalion drill by Lt. Col. 
    Davis.  The wind blew very strongly while we were drilling—indeed the 
    whole day—it made it quite disagreeable.  
    Thursday, March 23, 1865
    This was to have been the day for the grand review of our division but for some 
    unknown reason it was postponed until Saturday.  We had “drill parade” and 
    company drill this morning.  After drill we got orders to hold ourselves in 
    readiness to move at a moment’s notice.  This did away with the evening 
    drill and even had it not, the wind would have made it difficult.  Rev. R.L. 
    Dabney, D.D., preached in the 24th Regiment at 3:00 and again tonight.  I 
    met tonight, for the first time since the war started, an old college and social 
    mate, Lt. James A. Weston of the 12th S.C. infantry.
    Friday, March 24, 1865
    We were ordered out today on what we understand to be a preparatory 
    review by General Ransom.  Arriving on the field, we found the whole 
    division drawn up.  We were formed in line preparing to review and after 
    waiting some time, were marched back to our respective camps.  Soon 
    orders came to hold ourselves in readiness to move at 8:00 pm.
    The Landmark, October 2, 1924
    Saturday, March 25, 1865
    This has been a memorable day.  Last night at the appointed hour we 
    moved.  No one knew our destination.  Many were the conjectures.  We 
    first went out to the South Side Railroad and took the Cox Road towards 
    Petersburg, where we arrived tonight.  At 2:00 am we were aroused and 
    took the line of march towards our old position in the works east of the city.  
    We now began to suspect our objective.  We were held to repel an assault 
    our generals felt sure to be made—or we were going to attack the enemy.  
    On reaching our position near our works we learned that the latter was the 
    business on hand.  Just before daybreak, three guns were fired off from our 
    batteries at Colquitt salient.  This was the signal for the attack.  A few 
    scattered shots—a yell and our men were in the enemy’s works.  Our 
    brigade moved forward.  Over our works, over the chevaux-de-frise—across 
    the interval between the opposing obstructions—over the enemy’s 
    chevaux-de-frise—over and beyond his main line we went.
    The fort at Hare’s(?) Hart’s(?) house (Fort Steadman) and the works on our 
    brigade front north of the fort were ours. The enemy was dumbfounded.  Our 
    attack, sudden, vigorous, unlooked for, was thus far completely successful.  
    The works beneath us and the river were taken.  As soon as it became light 
    the enemy annoyed us exceedingly from a fort of theirs near the river to our 
    left.  Their fire completely enfiladed our position.  Once they attempted to 
    advance on our front but a volley dispersed them and they tried it no more.  
    But with shrapnel from our line beyond Fort Steadman and minies from the 
    fort near the river on our left and with shells from the bluffs in our front our 
    position was made, in the opinion of our commander, untenable.  Here Col. 
    McAfee was slightly wounded and left the field.  Shortly after, Lt. Col. James 
    Taylor Davis—a noble and brave man than any who has drawn a sword in our 
    cause—was mortally wounded and taken off the field.  Major Petty had 
    remained in camp sick and I, as captain, was left in command.  The fire 
    grew hotter and hotter and we were unable to reply.  Both of the 24th and 
    25th regiments were immediately on the right of the 49th but no field officer 
    was visible.  The 56th under Major Graham was immediately on our left.  
    The 35th under Col. Johnston was on the enemy’s mainline immediately 
    in our rear.
    Men were being wounded on all sides.  Capt. Terrence of Company H, Lt. 
    Krider of my company and Lt. Witherington of Company I were wounded.  
    Our men in Fort Steadman, I noticed, began going back to our lines.  They 
    did not seem to be really retreating.  I had seen a large quantity of troops 
    going in there and thought our command had more than met and were 
    sending troops to re-enforce some weaker point, I had no idea we were 
    abandoning the works we had taken and felt no uneasiness until ALL the 
    troops on my right were gone and the enemy coming up to their works 
    again. I then, for the first time, learned that the order to retire had been 
    given some time before. We would soon be surrounded by overwhelming 
    numbers and captured.  To retreat under the concentrated fire of all the 
    enemy batteries and rifles within range looked like certain destruction.  
    But try it we must.  The order was given and we started.  Good God, what 
    a time!  It seemed as if the enemy’s artillery opened with redoubled vigor 
    and the minie balls came in showers.  Many were wounded and as their 
    unhurt comrades passed them they tugged piteously to be carried out.  The 
    hearts of many failed them and they did not start at all.  Others started but 
    took shelter in the picket trenches and covered wagons. Lt. Krider and the 
    men who were carrying him were overtaken and captured by the enemy.  I 
    understand the loss in the brigade of killed, wounded and captured was over 
    700.  81 of our regiment were killed.  In my company no one I know was killed.  
    My loss in captured and wounded is twenty.  My company went in with 40 
    rifles and two men as ambulance corps.  Thus very nearly half of my company 
    was lost.  A truce to bury the dead occurred in the evening. In the brigade, the
    loss of field officers is as follows:
    24th Regiment, Lt. Col. Harris, wounded
    24th Regiment, Major Love, wounded and captured
    35th Regiment, Lt. Col. Taylor, slightly wounded
    49th Regiment, Col. McAfee, slightly wounded
    49th Regiment, Lt. Col. Davis, mortally wounded
    36th Regiment, Major Graham, severely wounded
    In the evening, we started for our cabins at Burgess’ Mills.
    The Landmark, October 13, 1924
    Saturday, April 1, 1865
    Day of evil omen!  All Fools Day!  And surely it has been an evil day for 
    us—for our whole company.  My heart sickens as I contemplate recording 
    the days disasters.  It certainly requires a superabundance of faith to see 
    that the day’s events are “all for the best.”
    Before day this morning, we were aroused and moved by the flank to the left 
    about a mile.  We then changed directions; it had during the movement 
    become light—by firing to the right.  A volley or two not far from us and to the 
    front caused us to halt in expectation of an immediate engagement.  After 
    waiting some time we again continued our movements, filed to the left and 
    found ourselves in a road along which our whole force, cavalry, infantry, and 
    artillery, were now moving.  All movement now bore the aspect of a hurried 
    retreat which in fact it was.  The roads were terribly bad.  It was with the 
    greatest difficulty that the ambulance and ordnance wagons could be moved 
    along.  A distance of four or five miles brought us back (though by a different 
    road from the one we went down) to Five Forks, where we stopped to feed and 
    get rations we so badly needed.
    Our regiment, the 49th, had hardly stacked arms when we were ordered to 
    move down the road we had come and support the 24th Regiment which had 
    brought up the rear and which was now on picket, resisting an advance of the 
    enemy.  Col. McAfee had gone off somewhere and could not be found.  The 
    command devolving upon me, I moved in the direction indicated, displayed the 
    regiment as skirmishers and moved up to the position of the 24th Regiment.  
    Some of the enemy cavalry—evidently reconnoitering—were plainly visible. a 
    few hundred yards off and were exchanging shots with our men pretty vigorously.  
    A man of Company E in our regiment was wounded as we came into our position.  
    The enemy retired beyond range.  Col. McAfee arrived and we quietly awaited the 
    advance of the foe. Some of Stewart’s brigade of Pickett’s Division came and 
    relieved us and w were ordered to retire our command.  This was, I think, about
    We found ourselves entrenching along White Oaks Road and, moving to our 
    position on the extreme left (towards Petersburg, as we faced southward) we 
    also threw up rifle pits. 
    Picket firing soon commenced in earnest.  Our pickets were driven in all 
    along the line but recovered their positions.  We  momentarily expected a 
    grand attack but while we were looking towards the front, the enemy, while 
    only demonstrating there, were moving a heavy column around our left flank.  
    Our line was weakened and the men scattered thinly along our works to allow 
    first one regiment and then another to be sent to the left to extend our lines.  
    The 24th, 25th and 56th regiments were on our left and the 35th on our right.  
    Balls soon began to come along our lines enfilading them completely.  The 
    enemy, however, kept up such a demonstration that we could give little 
    attention to our flanks.  We felt considerable uneasiness, however, on observing 
    movements of our men about half a mile directly in our rear, we were assured, 
    however, that it was our own cavalry.  Thus assured, we confidently awaited the 
    expected attack in our front.  Much to our surprise and consternation in a short 
    time one or two regiments or our men came running back to within 100 yards 
    of our rear, saying the enemy had completely flanked them and were moving 
    in a heavy column on a line parallel to ours and in our rear—thus almost 
    completely surrounding us.
    These regiments soon rallied and drove the enemy in the front back a 
    considerable distance but could not affect the main flanking column.  Col. 
    Rutledge, commanding the brigade, received no orders from the commander 
    of the division and either would not or could not determine upon any course 
    of action.  Col. McAfee, commanding the regiment was equally undecided, 
    not knowing what to do or failing to assume the responsibility of moving.  
    The men, seeing they were flanked, awaited orders in the most anxious 
    suspense.  Suddenly, we formed a line of battle perpendicular to our rear so 
    as to protect our flank and rear but no order to that effect was given and all 
    this time the Yankee column in our rear was bearing down upon us.  Col. 
    H.L. Benbow of Wallace’s (S.C.) brigade was the senior officer I saw present 
    and approached him for instructions, at the same time suggesting another 
    attempt at forming a line of battle perpendicular to the rear.  This met with his 
    approbation and the word was given.  The noble men who always obeyed 
    orders at every hazard and do their full duty moved at once.  The hearts of 
    many failed them.  Laying in the holes caused by throwing up the works, 
    they were afraid to raise their heads either to fire or run.  They were captured 
    where they were.
    In trying to accomplish this move, I was wounded on the right side of my 
    head by a Minnie ball.  Col. Benbow, I have since learned—was at the same 
    time wounded very badly, perhaps mortally.  A regular stampede now 
    commenced.  The enemy were pressing on every side; the men were confused 
    and various commands mixed with each other.  There was no concert of action.  
    There was no one who could control the confused mass of men.  The contagion 
    spread as this mass made its way up the line.  The cowardly ran—the timid 
    were dumbfounded—the brave, alone, could not withstand the vastly superior 
    force of the enemy.
    I made my way, I hardly know how, through all this.  At first, two men of 
    my regiment came to my assistance, but, though bleeding profusely, I 
    could walk.  I felt every minute the loss of blood would weaken me so that 
    I could not walk.  My feelings were horrible when I was first struck.  I 
    imagined the whole top of my head was gone.  I fell, but finding I could still 
    think, concluded my brain had not been affected and sprang to my feet and 
    pushed on (begging for help).  My blanket and cap were left on the spot—I 
    did not care for them—I wanted to escape from the enemy as I have always 
    had a horror of falling into the hands of the Yankees.  This made me more 
    earnest in my entreaties for help.  I saw that the day was lost and felt that in 
    a precipitate retreat, I would be left behind.  But, as I said, two men of my 
    regiment came to my assistance.  In a short while two of the litter bearers 
    joined them and the four put me in a stretcher, endeavored to carry me out.  
    The enemy came up from the rear, and closed upon us.  I sprang from the 
    litter and went on with the surging mass of men.  A temporary rally was made 
    and I got to the rear.  I could not find any of the surgeons or ambulances and 
    no other would do anything for me.  Finding our troops were still retreating, I 
    determined to make my way as far as I could towards whatever point seemed 
    to be the one sought by the retreating forces.
    Getting back in the vicinity of the ambulances and wagons, such excitement 
    and confusion it has never been my fortune to witness and I hope never to see 
    it again.  Some feeble efforts were made to stop the fugitives but to no purpose.  
    Everyone was trying to take care of himself.  Many artillery men and ambulance 
    drivers cut loose their horses and, mounting them, made off as fast as they could.
    At last, a surgeon of Payne’s brigade of Virginia cavalry, gave me leave to 
    ride in one of the ambulances.  Night was coming on.  No one knew which 
    road to take and there was no one who could give the desired information.  
    There was no time for deliberation and off we went, following the plainest 
    road.  Thus we traveled four or five miles.  In the ambulance in which I was 
    traveling, I found Quincy Bryan, one of General Ransom’s couriers, very 
    badly wounded.  After passing over some very bad roads we, at last, were 
    brought to a halt at a very muddy branch by one of the front ambulances 
    breaking down.  Just then, some of our cavalry came dashing up as if the 
    enemy were right on their heels.  Fearing that, after all my exertions, I was 
    about to be captured, I left the ambulance and going a short distance on foot, 
    found some cavalrymen leading their horses.  I begged to be allowed to ride 
    one of the horses but all to no purpose.  They said so many horses had been 
    taken from them in that way that they could not let me have one.  Besides, 
    they said they had the strictest orders for bidding them to let anyone ride.  
    At last, one fellow—long may he live and thrive—took compassion on me 
    and allowed me to mount one of his horses.  He would not, however, let me 
    take the reins.  On a less serious occasion, it must have been quite a 
    ludicrous sight—a cavalryman going like Jehu through the mud leading three 
    horses on which one I sat, bare headed with the blood running down over my 
    face, clinging desperately to the saddle, dodging the best as I could the limbs 
    of the trees which hung over the road.  But it was not at all funny to me.  
    In our rapid movement, the horse I rode and one of the others would 
    frequently come in violent contact with each other to the no little 
    inconvenience of my leg. At last, learning that I was an officer, my kindly 
    trooper—I now found out his name was Stoner of the 24th Virginia 
    Cavalry—gave me entire control of my steed.  Thus we made our way to 
    a station—Ford’s I think it was—on the south side of the railroad.  Here I 
    found about 100 of our brigade under Major Morgan of the 25th (?) regiment.  
    Lt. Col. Taylor of the 35th was in a house here, badly wounded in the arm.  
    The greatest part of our brigade were captured.  This party with Major 
    Morgan is doubtless the largest that has escaped.
    The Landmark, Oct. 16, 1924
     Sunday, April 2, 1865
    Last night orders came from General Fitz Lee for all at my station to move 
    at once down the road parallel to the railroad towards Petersburg.  Soon 
    wagons, ambulances and stragglers were on the road.
    Rev. John L. Girardeau, chaplain of the 23rd S.C., Assistant Surgeon Dick 
    of the same brigade, several others and I formed a party and took up a line 
    of march.  The road was terribly cut up and disagreeable.  We passed a 
    considerable quantity of cavalry camped on the roadside.  At sunrise we 
    got to the main rendezvous of all our cavalry and after resting, we went on 
    We soon met General Wallace who was trying to get the remnants of his 
    brigade together.  We came on several miles further to what I believe is 
    known as Church’s Crossing where, to my delight, I saw some of my brigade 
    ambulances and soon also found dr. R.H. Goode, assistant surgeon of my 
    regiment.  My wound had never been dressed owing to my having been able 
    to walk so far.  I was disposed to believe it was not at all serious. Dr. Goode, 
    however, told me that, though not at all dangerous if properly attended to—it 
    was, notwithstanding, a right severe wound.  The skull, though not fractured, 
    was laid bare.
    Here I learned that four of my company who were in yesterday’s battle, had 
    escaped—Corp. Isaac Lyerly, Privates R.L. Benson, J.C. Graham and John 
    J. Towell.  Of course, we soon found each other and were mutually delighted.  
    They were sure I had been captured.  The had wandered through the woods 
    all night and by good luck had happened to come out here this morning.  
    They know nothing of the fate of the others.  About 11:00, I suppose, it was 
    reported that the enemy were advancing and in a short time the wagons and 
    ambulances were rushing along a road which runs north from this point.  I 
    was now, of course, an occupant of an ambulance.  We traveled in an immense 
    train until yesterday night.  I had gone to sleep and did not awaken until nearly 
    The whole army is on retreat.  The enemy today broke by overwhelming 
    numbers our Petersburg line—our forces in the fortifications had been 
    weakened to prevent the flank movement on our right.
    Our men fought gallantly—repulsing assault after assault and that, too, 
    when the enemy were 8 and 9 columns deep.
    It is a sad thing for us—for this hitherto never defeated army—to be, by 
    sheer force of numbers, driven from our lines.  It is the greatest calamity 
    that has ever befallen the nation.  We hear the rumor—and I do not doubt 
    it true—that Richmond also has been evacuated by our troops.  “Misfortune 
    never comes singly.”
    Monday, April 3, 1865
    We were chased all day by the Yankees.  Had quite an exciting time.  
    Thought we would certainly be captured as the Appomattox was entirely 
    too swollen to cross.  We had once almost reached Amelia Courthouse—
    had parked for feeding—when suddenly the train was put in commotion by 
    the report that the enemy had occupied the road ahead of us.  We now 
    faced about and went back about half way as far as we had come.  We 
    parked for the night near Deep Creek.  It was confidently believed that the 
    enemy would have us before morning.   Our surgeons all left the train late 
    this evening to take care of themselves—so confident were they that we 
    would be captured.
    Tuesday, April 4, 1865
    There was considerable excitement in our wagon camp last night.  Many 
    left the encampment.  But contrary to the expectations of many, we found 
    ourselves all right this morning.  We soon started out and struck the 
    Richmond and Danville Railroad about three miles north of Amelia Court 
    House.  It was early in the evening but other trains had the road leading in 
    the direction we wished to go, so we had to wait.
    Captain R.D. Graham of the 56th Regiment who had been wounded on the 
    25th ult., and who had escaped from the hospital in Petersburg, joined us 
    this evening after we halted.
    Wednesday, April 5, 1865
    Left Amelia Court House to our left and took the road towards Painesville.  
    Had quite an exciting drive.  The enemy struck our train ahead of us—
    creating a panic throughout the entire immense train and burned 115 
    wagons, ambulances, etc.  We left Painesville this evening and took the 
    road towards Deatonsville.  Our destination is now evidently Farmville.
    Thursday, April 6, 1865
    Traveled nearly all night.  In the evening again got near the enemy.  Mrs.
    Milligan, wife of Major Milligan of the Signal Corps and her sister, Miss
    Sue Lightfoot joined us this evening.  The latter rode on one of the 
    ambulances.  There was fighting to the left and not far from us in the evening.  
    Mrs. Milligan and her sister rode on to Farmville when we stopped.
    Friday, April 7, 1865
    Rested but little during the night.  Heard that the remnant of our brigade had 
    been captured in yesterday evening’s fighting. Passed through Farmville this 
    morning by sunrise—crossed to the north side of the Appomattox.  This 
    evening the Yankee cavalry endeavored to again cut our train but much to 
    their discomfiture, happened to attack just at a point where we had a large 
    cavalry force.  The fight took place in a few hundred yards of the road and 
    was the first cavalry fight I ever witnessed.  Our men acted splendidly and 
    drove the enemy off capturing the Yankee general, Gregg, one of their best 
    cavalry commanders.
    Saturday, April 8, 1865
    I traveled unmolested all day through a beautiful country.  We are getting into 
    a mountain district.  We stopped for the night in the vicinity of Appomattox 
    Court House. During the night we were moved about.  Baggage was overhauled 
    and all that was surplus was thrown away.
    The Landmark, Oct. 20, 1924 
     Sunday, April 9, 1865
    This will doubtless appear in history as the most memorable day of this 
    bloody struggle.  Today the “Army of Northern Virginia”, the best army we 
    Southerners have—was surrendered by General R.E. Lee to Grant.  Who 
    would have dared to think this the fate of our largest army?  Who would 
    have ventured to predict this two years ago—or even one month ago?  
    Oh!  But it is a bitter, bitter humiliation.  All our hopes of independence 
    blasted.  All that a generous people value, gone at one fell blow!  Worse 
    than all—most keenly  humiliating than all—is the fact that these worthless 
    fellows who we have so often whipped—whose cowardly backs we have so 
    often seen—have at last by sheer force of numbers—swelled by contributions 
    from abroad—can now lord it over us—who pass with the airs of conquerors 
    through our camps and hereafter throughout the entire country.  
    Oh God!  How can we bear this?  Will not some terrible retribution yet—
    even in the mad intoxication of the hour—cannot open this motley crew 
    who have engaged upon us so unjust, so barbarous a war!  Upon this 
    soldiery who have burned our houses, desecrated our altars, waged 
    unrelenting warfare upon the aged, the weak and the helpless—insulted 
    and dishonored our lovely women.  
    Can it be?  Can it be?  That after so nobly struggling—after so many 
    deeds of heroism—after so much sorrow and suffering—borne, too, with 
    so much Spartan fortitude—can it be that after all this, we are to be 
    subjugated?  And by such a people? 
    Oh God!  Our burden is almost too heavy to be borne.
    We, of course, did not move today.  Early this morning all the wagons 
    and ambulances were parked as near together as possible.  We soon 
    learned that flags of truce were passing through the two armies and that 
    something momentous was going on.  It was some time before we knew 
    the crushing truth.  General Lee, thinking it was impossible to extricate 
    his army from their present position, without loss of life, surrendered the 
    remnant of his once superb army. The developments of the future will 
    show whether or not he was right.
    The surrender was agreed upon today but all the details have not been 
    agreed upon.  Captain Graham, Dr. C.A. Fripp and some other passed 
    the night in the ambulance.
    Monday, April 10, 1865
    This morning our ambulances were moved about a quarter of a mile 
    owards Appomattox Court House and parked to await orders.  The 
    details are being arranged as quickly as possible.  The weather is gloomy 
    as if in sympathy with the melancholy events transpiring.  The clouds are 
    low and threatening.  Occasional showers of rain fell.  “Nature weeps over 
    liberty’s death”.  After dark, our ambulances wee taken from us.  Captain 
    Graham and I lay down beside the tree to get a night’s repose.  Our hearts 
    today have been frequently stirred up seeing the conquering Yankees riding 
    Tuesday, April 11, 1865
    The transfer of public property—arms, munitions, wagons, ambulances, 
    stores, etc., goes rapidly on.  Today, Captain Graham and I reported to 
    Surgeon G.W. Briggs, in charge of the General Receiving Hospital.  He 
    gave us a tent this evening. 
    Wednesday, April 12, 1865
    Having last evening signed the parole, we this morning got our parole 
    papers to go home and there remain undisturbed until exchanged.  
    Exchanged!! When will that be?  In the evening, the Yankee ambulances 
    came over and we were put into them and started for Burkesville.  Having 
    proceeded about ten miles, we stopped for the remainder of the night as 
    it was considerably dark.  The patients were put into a barn and soon bad 
    coffee and hardtack were served.
    Thursday, April 13, 1865
    We traveled all day without anything unusual occurring.  Our Yankee 
    companions are very civil to us.  We left Farmville about dark and 
    stopped for the night. 
    Friday, April 14, 1865
    After pretty hard traveling or rather after traveling over some pretty bad roads 
    we this evening reached Burkesville Junction and entered the hospital there 
    to await means of transportation to our homes by way of Danville or to
    Saturday, April 15, 1865
    Remained in the hospital quietly all day.
    Sunday, April 16, 1865
    Got on the train early this morning.  Did not start for Petersburg until after 
    noon.  Had some difficulty in getting on because of trains coming up and 
    engines getting off the track.
    Monday, April 17, 1865
    Reached Petersburg about sunrise and immediately went to the residence 
    of W.R. Johnston, Esq., where we saw Major J.W. Graham and met with a 
    warm and generous hospitality.  Major Graham is doing remarkably well 
    and is in fine spirits.  We got a luxurious breakfast compared to our late fare.  
    Tuesday, April 18, 1865
    Made efforts to be entered as patients in a hospital but were not altogether 
    successful.  Rumors of Lincoln’s death.
    Wednesday, April 19, 1865
    Through Col. Huger’s influence, we got an order from the Yankee medical 
    inspector to remain at private quarters and draw rations from the U.S. 
    General Hospital.  Have had a most agreeable time with the hospitable 
    Mr. and Mrs. Johnston.  Lincoln’s assassination confirmed.
    Thursday, April 20, 1865
    Remained quietly in our room.  Occupied our time in reading, writing, etc.  
    Took a walk through the city today. What a change in appearance!
    Friday, April 21, 1865
    Same as yesterday.
    Saturday, April 22, 1865
    Captain Graham and I took a long walk through the city this evening.
    Sunday, April 23, 1865
    Attended services both morning and evening at Washington Street 
    Presbyterian Church.  Rev. Mr. Leavenworth officiated.  Mr. Miller the 
    regular pastor, was absent on a visit to his family.
    Monday, April 24, 1865
    Had a good, quiet time.  Am anxious to start for home but can find no 
    opportunity.  Contented ourselves by reading.  Captain Graham called on 
    some young ladies.
    The Landmark, March 26, 1886
    A Pleasant Word For An Iredell Man
    The Loudon County, Tennessee, Record, writes up the town of Loudon in a 
    recent issue and speaking of the different people and professional men 
    comes to the law firm of Chambers and McQueen and says:
    “This is a strong firm.  The former gentleman was raised in North Carolina 
    and educated at common and high schools and Davidson College of the 
    same state.  During the last three years of the Civil War he held a captain’s 
    commission in the Confederate Army, commanding the regiment at Five 
    Forks where he was wounded in the head during a charge.  Removing to 
    Monroe County, Tennessee and entering law practice, he was soon after 
    (1871) chosen to represent the district in the state legislature.  A few years 
    after, he removed to Loudon.  In 1876 being elected to the state senate, a 
    position he resigned the following year to accept a position as postage 
    stamp agent under the appointment of Postmaster General Key.  Since 
    1882, he has confined his attention to the practice of law in which he is 
    successful.  Recently, his name has been mentioned as a probably 
    candidate for governor of Tennessee.  If elected, he would honor the position.”
    The gentleman in question is Captain Henry A. Chambers and is a native 
    of Iredell County, N.C.  He went from this county to the war and has a 
    great many friends here.  By his marriage to Miss Lenoir he became a 
    brother-in-law to Hon. D.M. Key who was Postmaster General under Hayes 
    and who took a position in the postal service under Keys.  He is one of the
    few Democrats who could hold a position under a Republican administration 
    and be a Democrat still, but he did, and he continues as outspoken as his 
    sentiments as he has always been. Captain Chambers is an honorable, 
    kindly, high minded gentleman and it is pleasing to learn this deservedly 
    high estimate in which he is held in his adopted home.
    The Landmark
    October 20, 1896
    Captain H.A. Chambers and wife, of Chattanooga, Tennessee, have been 
    here for several days, visiting Major and Mrs. P.B. Chambers.  They went 
    to Mooresville this morning to visit Mr. Chambers’ mother.  Capt. Chambers 
    was raised in this county, at Major Chambers’ old home near Elmwood, and 
    is known to many of our citizens.  He and Mr. J.C. Turner were school mates 
    and army comrades and Messrs. J.P. Burke and J.C. Steele were also in 
    the war with him.  Since the war, Capt. Chambers has lived in Chattanooga, 
    Tennessee where he is a prominent lawyer.
    The Landmark
    Sept. 16, 1898
    Capt. H.A. Chambers of Chattanooga, Tennessee, was in town Wednesday 
    on his way to Mooresville, where he has been called on account of the 
    serious illness of his mother, Mrs. Ellen Jones.  Capt. Chambers is a 
    native of Iredell and well known to many of the older residents.  He was an 
    army comrade of Mr. J.C. Turner and other Iredell ex-Confederates.
    The Landmark
    November 24, 1921
    At the reunion in Chattanooga, Capt. H.A. Chambers, an honored son of 
    Iredell County, now a prominent attorney of Chattanooga, permitted the
     newspaper in that city to publish excerpts from his diary as a Confederate 
    soldier from 1862 to 1865.  Captain Chambers, in a sketch, published in the 
    same paper, writes:
    I was born May 17, 1841, reared in Iredell County, N.C., and entered the 
    Confederate service in Iredell County.  This was one of the largest 
    companies in population and size in the state.
    In the division between the old Whig and Democratic political parties, before 
    the war, Iredell was a strong Whig county.  About two thirds of its voters 
    were Whigs and even after the Whig party collapsed, were opposed to the 
    Democratic party.  They opposed secession as a policy, not as a right.  
    They looked upon it as a form of a partisan Democratic policy and at first 
    strongly opposed it.  But like the other people of the state, when Mr. 
    Lincoln called for troops, they went into it.  Strongly Whig and Union, as 
    the county long had been, it furnished more soldiers to the Confederate 
    army than any other county of similar population in the state.
    My father’s people were all strongly Whigs.  As a boy, I heard only Whig 
    talk and read and heard only Whig newspapers.  As a boy, erroneously 
    believing everything printed was true, I grew up with strong prejudice against 
    Democrats.  I had heard them classified as lineal descendents of the tories 
    of the American Revolution.  My step-father was one of the best men I ever 
    knew.  He was, however, a Democrat and as a boy with all of my prejudices,
    I could not understand how so good a man could be a Democrat and a 
    secessionist.  But he and his sons proved their faith by their good work 
    during the war.
    In April, 1861, I was in the freshman class at Davidson College, N.C., and 
    had many warm arguments with the South Carolina and other southern 
    Democrats and secession boys.  But when North Carolina went over, I 
    went over too.  By consent of my kind foster father and guardian who had 
    been a strong Whig, I was among the first to leave college and by May 4, 
    1861, I had gone to Statesville, the county seat of my county, and 
    volunteered for the war.
    The company in which I volunteered was being raised by John B. Andrews 
    who had a flourishing boys’ school at Statesville.  He had studied military 
    tactics while on a stay in France and had added military training as a part 
    of the course for boys of his school  Most of those who joined his company 
    were school boys just like us.
    His company, when organized, became Company C, afterwards the 4th 
    N.C. Regiment.  I was made ensign of the company, an office which 
    ceased to be recognized after the outfit became part of the regiment and 
    I was reduced to, and remained, a private until December, 1862.
    In the meantime, my foster father and guardian, Pinkney B. Chambers, 
    and some associates, had raised another company for the Confederate 
    service.  It had been the plan for me to come home and help to raise the 
    company, and having had training in the 4th Regiment, drill the new 
    volunteers.  But I was on detached service and could not get a furlough 
    (illegible words—even though??) a place was left open for me in the new 
    outfit, which had become Company C of the 49th Regiment.  On the 
    promotion of P.B. Chambers to be major of the regiment, I was made 
    captain of the company and served as such until the end of the war.
    By March, 1865, I had become senior captain and (illegible words—on 
    occasion?) commanded the regiment and on the death of the lieutenant 
    colonel, was entitled to be promoted to major but the war ended before my 
    commission was issued.  I was seriously wounded in April of 1865 at the 
    Battle of Five Forks, near Petersburg, Virginia, and was hauled(?) in an 
    ambulance to Appomattox where I and a few of my company were released 
    at General Lee’s surrender.
    The Landmark
    November 26, 1923
    …….in talking to an old veteran recently, he told us that Captain H.A. Chambers 
    was his captain and that only three of the company are known to be living in 
    Rowan, they are, W.G. Rice, W.F. Watson, Sr., and R.L. Benson
    See also “An Iredell Neighborhood of Fifty Years Ago” written by Capt. Chambers
    Transcribed by Christine Spencer, June-August 2008

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